Hello my name is Sophie kirby class 5-3 411 here are my 5 facts about taiga ecosystem.
  1. The animals that live in taiga have a good place to live.
  2. Taiga is a place for animals and other stuff like a plant.
  3. Taiga ecosystem is a place with lots of tree and animals and plants to live at so it can lives.
  4. A place for animals to steep at.
  5. It is a good place for everything.

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  1. What does Ecosystem mean ? An ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants,animals,organisms) in a giving afea and interaytingwith earth other and also with their non-living environments (weather,earth,sun,soil,climate,atmosphere).ecosystem are the foundaion of the biosphere and they determine the health of the entine earth system.
  2. What does community mean? A group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.
  3. What does biome mean ? A large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, forest or tundra.
  4. What does habitat mean? The natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism.
  5. What does population mean? A particular section, group, or type of people or animals living in an area or country.
  6. What does niche mean? A shallow recess, especially one in a well to display a statue or other ornament


short summury


In taiga there is a lot of trees but some are getting cut down and animals are getting killed and there are lots of fires in the taiga soo this website can help many ecosysten such as tundra ,strem , river and much more in this website me and my class are going to work on a project about diffrent projects and we are going to post it on the wikispaces and we will be abel to tell many people to help us....














hello my name is isamar baez i am from 5-5B here are my 5 facts about taiga ecosystem.
1.animals of the taiga have many specialized adaptions including lost of think for or feathers and the ability to change colors during diffrent seasons.
2. scientists believe that taiga biome was completely covored by glaciers many years ago.
3.the taiga forest are endangered due do logging and mining by humans. when trees and cut down in the taiga it takes a very long time to reslone itself because of the very short growing season.
4.although there are not many animals in the taiga biome it inhabits millions of insect every year.
5.the temperature change in the taiga is extreme it is either summer (hot) or winter (cold). the spring and fall are short to notice.




isamar picture 1.jpg isamar picture 1



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https://ny.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/nat15.sci.lisci.sloth/sloths-in-their-ecosystem/#.WuCOwC7


este video se trata de que los peresosos siempre sonlentos en todo.

https://ny.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/nat15.sci.lisci.brushturk/animal-adaptations-brush-turkey-mounds/?#.WuCQPS7waM8


la adaptacion de animales es algo que todos los animales se acostumbran a hacer.

https://ny.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/nat15.sci.lisci.puffcol/the-puffin-colonies/?#.WuCQ_S7waM8

las colonis son partes que viven los animales y como les abia dicho anteriormente se adaptan donde viven.




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picture1 taiga ecosystem

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https://ny.pbslearningmedia.org/search/?q=taiga+ecosystem&selected_facets=grades_exact%3A5&selected_facets=supplemental_curriculum_hierarchy_nodes%3A8337&selected_facets=media_type_exact%3AVideo

this video is about sloths in their ecosystem. scientist say that sloth climp treetops so slow and they go to sleep for so long.

https://ny.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/nat15.sci.lisci.pygmy/animal-adaptations-the-pygmy-sloth/?#.WuCSXG4vyM8







My Area of Focus

In my area of focus I will tell you what i'm doing i'm going to do what's major in the taiga which is deforestation this means that the taiga is facing a really big thing.Deforestation is major in the taiga.We need you all of you to save the taiga ecosystem.

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This is how the taiga looks like.

Hello my name is Julian Roberts from 5-3 and here are 5 facts about the Taiga ecosystem. Check out my videos I put up in taiga ecosystem
1.The Taiga biome is the largest terrestrial biome and extends across Europe,North america,and Asia.
2. It is located right below the Tundra biome.
3. The Taiga biome is also known as the coniferous or boreal biome.
4. This biome has short, summers and long winters.So there is two seasons in the taiga.
5. Precipitation is moderate in the Taiga.So it rains more.





I am going to tell you 4 definitions.
1.Ecosystem:It is where living organisms live.
2.Population:A number of many animals live today such as wolves that live in the taiga.
3.Community:A group of animals live together.
4.Habitat:A natural home or environment to animals,plants,and other organisms.

Im going to write a summary.
The taiga has huge mountains.It has a long winter.Theres not many days of summer.Very long days in
winter.Thank you for reading my summary.
pics at the bottom.




I'm going to do 10 things kids can save the taiga ecosystem.
1.Do not cut down the trees.
2.Do not hunt animals.
3.Don't touch any wildlife.
4.Back away from the animals slowly if you don't want to kill them.
5.Don't touch or take away baby animals from there home.
6.You have to take it back or else consequences.
7.If it's a orphan still take it back.
8.You are going to have a fight with the parents if you do.
9.If you cut down trees you will not breath.
10.You cannot breath because trees take in the carbon dioxide and turns it into oxygen it's called photosynthesis.I'm going to put my info in.
11 bonus .No guns and shooting animals.
Deforestation is coming to the taiga ecosystem.We need your help to stop that.WE NEED YOU!!!!!!!!!!!To help kids like us to save the
Deforestation is very hard on the taiga.
I like the taiga biome because it is fun to meet a new ecosystem.











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Hello my name is Daeyoni Lee from 5-502 and here are 5 facts about the Taiga ecosystem;
1. It is the largest biomes on Earth ever to be found
2. It also stretches across most of North America,Asia,and Europe
3.The average amount of rain a year is is only 30 to 84 centimeters 4.the swampy areas covered in mass and dead plant matter 5.sometimes it shines for weeks in the summer Here is a picture of how the taiga biome looks
6.there are cool summers and cold winters 5.most parts of the Taiga are found near the equator here is a picture of the Taiga in the mid spring
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Image result for Taiga
Image result for Taiga

here is a picture of a Taiga food chain

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here is a picture of a Taiga food pyramid

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here is a picture of a taiga web



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WORD DEFANATION

ecosystem:all of the living thin place an animal lives
foodweb:lags in a given area
community:a group of living things and/or working togethercted were their going for winter and summer
population: a group of people or animals living in a certain place
niche: a part of the environment into which a specie fits
biome: a large region of Earth that has certain climate and types of living things
habitat: is arge numbers of different herbivores that feed on plants
food chain: a hierolrchial series of organisms each dependent environment aa a source of food
food pyramid: a graphic resprentation of predatory relationships in the food chain

energy pyramid: is a graphic model of energy flow in a communtiy


my summary:

The Taiga is a place were animals go to live their life and be free of the people from who kill them and their families.If you think about it if an other species dies,other species will,too.Many other animals will start to die ffo.And soon human will die.As you have seen animals live off each other.Taiga birds and other birds too, are dying from the Earth's ozone.Birds live off the Earths ozone layers,it helps them be directed to were their going.Another example is how we live if we did not have plants we wound not be able to breathe.Since plants breathe in carbon dioxide and breath out oxygen(which we breathe).So many things could happen,so next time you kill or hurt an animal you should think about what is going to happen to you and your family.The Earth can any moment just drown us,gravity can just slip out your hands.But when you think about it if the human species were to die off in a slit second.The world would be a better place for animals and plants.All i'm saying is that the world would be a better place without humans.And if humans were to remain here(which we still are),we need to help save the world from dieing.Now i'm just asking you to save Taiga save the world!

HERE ARE 5 WAYS KIDS CAN SAVE THE TAIGA ECOSYSTEM:


1:you can walk or ride a bike to school
2:if you find garbage trow it away in a recycling bin
3:you can plant a tree
4:you can water the plants at the park
5:you can clean the trash out pounds and small rivers



HERE ARE 5 WAYS KIDS CAN SAVE THE WORLD:

1:BY NOT LITTERING
2:SAVE WATER BY TURNING IT OFF WHEN YOUR NOT USE IT
3:YOU COULD SAVE ANIMALS BY LOOKING FOR ANIMALS IN NEED AND TAKING THEM TO THE VET FOR ADOPTION
4:save energy by turning the lights and water off when you or some one else is not use it
5:you can try not to cut dow


Hi my name is jhoana and here are my 5 fact of the taiga ecosystem

1. In the taiga boreal forest biome the average annual rainfall is approximately 33 inches.

2. It is believed that more then 32,000 species of insects live in the taiga.

3. Taiga known as a boreal forest or a snow forest, is biome characterized by conferious forests.

4. Winter with its below freezing temperatures usually last about 6-7 months.

5. Every six months the biome is cold and some animals can be freezing so they move to another ecosystem.

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Definitons:

Ecosystem- An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in one place with the non-living components of their environment interacting as ecosystem.
Population- A group of the same species.
Community- A community is a small or large social unit who have something in a common such as the same species.
Biome- A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment.
Habitat- A habitat is an environment area that is in a place by a species of animals or plants.
Niche- A niche is a type of specific habitat.

Short Summary:

What i learned about the Taiga was that the Taiga is a snow forest and also that it is getting damaged by people that burns it down and they cut the trees to make things such as paper, houses, and much more but people are damaging the Taiga they keep on making fires and and if people don't stop making fires it will the taiga will burn down and it wont be called the taiga. It might be called the taiga, but it wont look like it because trees wont be there and snow will not be there it will look different.

10 Facts Kids Can Do To Save The World:
1. We can stop by throwing garbage.
2. We can also help by stop putting oil in the water.
3. We can stop making fires.
4. We can clean places such as trains buses and more.
6. We can preserve trees with parks.
7. We can stop killing animals.
8. We can stop throwing garbage on the floor.
9 . We can start throwing garbage in the trash can.
10. We can make projects to save the world form deforesting.

10 Facts Kids Can Do To Save The Taiga Ecosystem:
1. We can stop making fires.
2. We can stop killing animals.
3. We can stop cutting trees.
4. We can stop throwing garbage in the floor.
5. We can save animals by calling for help.
6. We can tell everyone to pick after themselves.
7.we can start cleaning the taiga
8. we can make projects to help deforst stashon
9.we can prevent
10.


my foacas

my foacas of work is deforst stashion and global warm i am doing deforst stashon because in taiga there is lots of trees and there are geting cut down to do many thing with them such as julary and paper books and many more there are also many anamal in the taiga ecosystem but there are dieing because of global warming and many other thing are happening in the taiga ecosystem taiga


Focus: My Focus for the Taiga is that i want to save the Taiga by stopping deforestation. Deforestation is the main problem in the Taiga. The other problems are, pollution, wild fires, and the killing of animals. Based on my research, every animal in the Taiga is in danger. So is the tree because they are being cut down and me and other people are trying to help the Taiga.

Hello my name is Lindsee Duncan from Class 5-3, Room 411 and i will tell you 5 facts about the biome or ecosystem, the Taiga.
1. In much of the mountainous western region of North America, much of the Taiga in North America was once covered with glaciers.
2. Fire is uncommon in the Taiga during summer. Fires may seem destructive, but they actually help this biome by removing old sick trees. Making room for new growth.
3. In the Taiga, the average temperature is below freezing for six months of the year. Total yearly precipitation comes during the warm humid summer months.
4. Taiga is mostly found in subarctic latitudes between 50 degrees north.
5. Animal populations are mainly seed-eating squirrels and jays. Smaller animals like ermine and moles are larger browsing animals.

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Beautiful Picture Of The Taiga

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Food Chain



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Food Web




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Food Pyramid


DEFINITIONS:
By: Lindsee Duncan

ECOSYSTEM:
An ecosystem includes all of the living things [plants,animals and organisms] in a given area interacting with each other, And also with their nonliving
environments.

POPULATION:
A group of people or animals living in a certain place.

COMMUNITY:
A natural group [as kinds of plants and animals] living together and depending on one another for various necessities of life.

HABITAT:
A habitat is a home of an animal or a plant.

BIOME:
A biome is a large region of earth that has a certain climate and certain types of living things.

NICHE:
A niche is the part of the environment into which a species fits, and to which it is adapted.

Short Summary Of What I Learned:
My ecosystem is the Taiga and this ecosystem is the largest biome in the world. A lot of animals like Lynxes adapt in the winter unlike some animals that need warmth and move to another ecosystem. The continent that the Taiga grows in is North America and by North Americas name you can tell its freezing when its winter time.

10 Things Kids Can Do To Save The Earth By Lindsee Duncan:
1. We can stop polluting the world.
2. We can stop cutting down trees.
3. We can pick after ourselves and the environment.
4. We can inspire other people to help stop destroying our planet with garbage.
5. We can tell everyone to stop cutting trees and throwing garbage around.
6. We can post things that will stop destroying our world since there's a lot of people that stays inside their house for hours to play games or use their phone.
7. We can post things on YouTube or other websites that provide video making.
8. We can tell the government to ban cutting anymore trees. We already have plenty of it.
9. We can go to the news to tell people that polluting is wrong.
10. We can make projects that can save the world from dying.

10 Things Kids Can Do To Save The Taiga By Lindsee Duncan:
1. We can stop people who cut trees for money to stop deforesting the Taiga.
2. We can stop the pollution from going into the swamps and rivers that lead to the ocean ecosystem.
3. We can pick up garbage in the ecosystem.
4. We can ask everyone in our neighborhood to pick up garbage.
5. We can post things on the internet to inspire others to save the Taiga.
6. We can plan something that will save the Taiga from deforesting.
7. If theres any animals that need help in the ecosystem quickly call for help.
8. If theres any animals that are children, and stranded please call for help or take it to your home.
9. We can help everyone out with their garbage.
10. We can clean the sidewalks.

Hello, my name is Josneida Cornelio from class

5-999 Here are some facts about Taiga Ecosystem.

forest stretches across Canada the U.S.A alaska sweden finland and norway Russla northern kazstan nortnern zakstan northern. mongolia and northern. japan the aver age temperaure reaches 10*c for no more than 4 months in the yearso plants and animals have a bus, few months Befor slowing right down or nibernating for the other eight months.


1. what is population? A system, on a group of interconnected elements, formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment. 2.what is a cop interests or a common heritage.

4. whatEcobgy. thethe position or function of anorganism in a community of plants and animals.

5. amajoorecolog, cal coommunity










matthew trejso






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matthew trejos 3

matthew trejos 2



external image taiga_forest_canada.jpgfacts about the taiga biome by matthew trejos
1.The taiga biome is the largest terrestrial biome and extends across Europe,North America,and Asia.

2.The taiga biome is very cold during the winter.Temperatures can reach as low as -60° F.

3.Plants can only grow during the summer when temperatures are favorable. This growing season only lasts about three months.

4.There is not much variety in plants. Majority of the plants are conifer trees which is why the taiga is referred to as the coniferous forest.

5.For six months out of the year, the temperature in the taiga biome is below freezing.

By ashley infante and my partner lourdes ramales

This is some facts about the Taiga Ecosystem.The Taiga is one of the three main forest biomes.The other two are the temperate forest and the tropicalrainforest.The Taiga is the driest and coldest of the three.The Taiga is sometimes called the boreal forest or the coniferous forest.It is largest of all the land biomes.The average annual rainfall is approximately 33 inches for the taiga biome.The animals that lives in the taiga are mooses ,lynx bears,wolverines,foxes,and squirrels.The largest taiga biomes are found in russia and canada.The main seasons in the taiga are winter and summer.The spring and autumn are so short,you hardly know they exist.Many of the animals that live in the Taiga/boreal forest biome are able to change color based on time of year.





By Joseph Rodriguez

The Taiga Ecosystem is one of the largest Ecosystem in the world. The Taiga Ecosystem can go under -30 degrees. Long, cold winters, and short, mild, wet summers are typical of this region. In the winter, chilly winds from the arctic cause bitterly cold weather in the taiga. The length of day also varies with the seasons. Winter days are short, while summer days are long because of the tilt of the earth on its axis. Fire is not uncommon in the taiga during the summer. Fires may seem destructive, but they actually help this biome by removing old sick trees, making room for new growth. Precipitation is relatively high in the taiga and falls as snow during the winter and rain during the summer. The total yearly precipitation in the taiga biome is 10 - 30 inches (25 - 75 cm).

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By xavier Bonano

This is my re-search of the Taiga ecosystem,I hope you will find it helpfull.

Taiga (pronounced /ˈtaɪɡə/, Russian: тайга́; from Turkic[1[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-0|]]] or Mongolian), also known as the boreal forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests.
Taiga is the world's largest terrestrial biome. In North America it covers most of inland Canada and Alaska as well as parts of the extreme northern continental United States and is known as the Northwoods.[2[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-1|]]] It also covers most of Sweden, Finland, inland and northern Norway, much of Russia (especially Siberia), northern Kazakhstan, northern Mongolia, and northern Japan (on the island of Hokkaidō).
The term "boreal forest" is sometimes, particularly in Canada, used to refer to the more southerly part of the biome, while the term taiga is often used to describe the more barren areas of the northernmost part of the taiga approaching the tree line.
Climate and geography
Taiga is the world's largest land biome, and makes up 29% of the world's forest cover;[3[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-2|]]] the largest areas are located in Russia and Canada. The taiga is the terrestrial biome with the lowest annual average temperatures after the tundra and permanent ice caps. Extreme winter minimums in the northern taiga are typically lower than those of the tundra. The lowest reliably recorded temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere were recorded in the taiga of northeastern Russia. The taiga or boreal forest has a subarctic climate with very large temperature range between seasons, but the long and cold winter is the dominant feature. This climate is classified as Dfc, Dwc, Dsc, Dfd and Dwd in the Köppen climate classification scheme,[4[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-3|]]] meaning that the short summer (24-hr average 10 °C or more) lasts 1–3 months and always less than 4 months. There are also some much smaller areas grading towards the oceanic Cfc climate with milder winters, whilst the extreme south and (in Eurasia) west of the taiga reaches into humid continental climates (Dfb, Dwb) with longer summers. The mean annual temperature generally varies from -5 °C to 5 °C,[5[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-4|]]] but there are taiga areas in eastern Siberia and interior Alaska-Yukon where the mean annual reaches down to -10 °C.[6[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-5|]]][7[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-6|]]] According to some sources, the boreal forest grades into a temperate mixed forest when mean annual temperature reaches about 3 °C.[8[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-7|]]] Discontinuous permafrost is found in areas with mean annual temperature below 0 °C, whilst in the Dfd and Dwd climate zones continuous permafrost occurs and restricts growth to very shallow-rooted trees like Siberian larch. The winters, with average temperatures below freezing, last five to seven months. Temperatures vary from −54 °C to 30 °C (-65 °F to 86 °F) throughout the whole year. The summers, while short, are generally warm and humid. In much of the taiga, -20 °C would be a typical winter day temperature and 18 °C an average summer day.
external image 220px-Talkessel_von_Werchojansk.JPG
The taiga in the river valley near Verkhoyansk, Russia, at 67°N, must deal with the coldest winter temperatures in the northern hemisphere, but the extreme continentality of the climate gives an average daily high of 22 °C in July.
The growing season, when the vegetation in the taiga comes alive, is usually slightly longer than the climatic definition of summer as the plants of the boreal biome have a lower threshold to trigger growth. In Canada, Scandinavia and Finland, the growing season is often estimated by using the period of the year when the 24-hr average temperature is 5 °C or more.[9[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-8|]]] For the Taiga Plains in Canada, growing season varies from 80 to 150 days, and in the Taiga Shield from 100 to 140 days.[10[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-9|]]] Some sources claim 130 days growing season as typical for the taiga.[11[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-10|]]] Other sources mention that 50–100 frost-free days are characteristic.[12[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-11|]]] Data for locations in southwest Yukon gives 80–120 frost-free days.[13[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-12|]]] The closed canopy boreal forest in Kenozyorsky National Park near Plesetsk, Arkhangelsk Province, Russia, on average has 108 frost-free days.[14[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-13|]]] The longest growing season is found in the smaller areas with oceanic influences; in coastal areas of Scandinavia and Finland, the growing season of the closed boreal forest can be 145–180 days.[15[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-14|]]] The shortest growing season is found at the northern taiga–tundra ecotone, where the northern taiga forest no longer can grow and the tundra dominates the landscape when the growing season is down to 50–70 days,[16[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-15|]]][17[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-16|]]] and the 24-hr average of the warmest month of the year usually is 10 °C or less.[18[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-17|]]] High latitudes mean that the sun does not rise far above the horizon, and less solar energy is received than further south. But the high latitude also ensures very long summer days, as the sun stays above the horizon nearly 20 hours each day, with only around 6 hours of daylight occurring in the dark winters, depending on latitude. The areas of the taiga inside the Arctic circle have midnight sun in mid-summer and polar night in mid-winter.
external image 220px-Helvetinj%C3%A4rvi.JPG
Lakes and other water bodies are very common. The Helvetinjärvi National Park, Finland, situated in the closed canopy taiga (mid-boreal to south-boreal) [19[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-18|]]] with mean annual temperature of 4 °C.[20[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-19|]]]
The taiga experiences relatively low precipitation throughout the year (generally 200–750 mm annually, 1,000 mm in some areas), primarily as rain during the summer months, but also as fog and snow. This fog, especially predominant in low-lying areas during and after the thawing of frozen Arctic seas, means that sunshine is not abundant in the taiga even during the long summer days. As evaporation is consequently low for most of the year, precipitation exceeds evaporation, and is sufficient to sustain the dense vegetation growth. Snow may remain on the ground for as long as nine months in the northernmost extensions of the taiga ecozone.[21[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-20|]]]
In general, taiga grows to the south of the 10 °C July isotherm, but occasionally as far north as the 9 °C July isotherm.[22[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-21|]]] The southern limit is more variable, depending on rainfall; taiga may be replaced by forest steppe south of the 15 °C July isotherm where rainfall is very low, but more typically extends south to the 18 °C July isotherm, and locally where rainfall is higher (notably in eastern Siberia and adjacent Outer Manchuria) south to the 20 °C July isotherm. In these warmer areas the taiga has higher species diversity, with more warmth-loving species such as Korean Pine, Jezo Spruce, and Manchurian Fir, and merges gradually into mixed temperate forest or, more locally (on the Pacific Ocean coasts of North America and Asia), into coniferous temperate rainforests.
The area currently classified as taiga in Europe and North America (except Alaska) was recently glaciated. As the glaciers receded they left depressions in the topography that have since filled with water, creating lakes and bogs (especially muskeg soil) found throughout the taiga

Soils
Taiga soil tends to be young and poor in nutrients. It lacks the deep, organically enriched profile present in temperate deciduous forests.[23[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-autogenerated1-22|]]] The thinness of the soil is due largely to the cold, which hinders the development of soil and the ease with which plants can use its nutrients.[23[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-autogenerated1-22|]]] Fallen leaves and moss can remain on the forest floor for a long time in the cool, moist climate, which limits their organic contribution to the soil; acids from evergreen needles further leach the soil, creating spodosol, also known as podzol.[24[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-23|]]] Since the soil is acidic due to the falling pine needles, the forest floor has only lichensand some mosses growing on it. In clearings in the forest and in areas with more boreal deciduous trees, there are more herbs and
external image 220px-Yukon_River_near_Carmacks%2C_Yukon_-a.jpg

Yukon, Canada. Several of the world's longest rivers go through the taiga, including Ob, Yenisei, Lena, and Mackenzie.
berries growing. Diversity of soil organisms in the boreal forest is high, comparable to the tropical rainforest.[25[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-24|]]]

Flora
external image 170px-BaikalForest_%28pixinn.net%29.jpg
Boreal Forest near Lake Baikal in Russia
Since North America and Asia used to be connected by the Bering land bridge, a number of animal and plant species (more animals than plants) were able to colonize both continents and are distributed throughout the taiga biome (see Circumboreal Region). Others differ regionally, typically with each genus having several distinct species, each occupying different regions of the taiga. Taigas also have some small-leaved deciduous trees like birch, alder, willow, and poplar; mostly in areas escaping the most extreme winter cold. However, the Dahurian Larch tolerates the coldest winters in the northern hemisphere in eastern Siberia. The very southernmost parts of the taiga may have trees such as oak, maple, elm, and tilia scattered among the conifers, and there is usually a gradual transition into a temperate mixed forest, such as the Eastern forest-boreal transition of eastern Canada. In the interior of the continents with the driest climate, the boreal forests might grade into temperate grassland.
There are two major types of taiga. The southern part is the closed canopy forest, consisting of many closely spaced trees with mossy ground cover. In clearings in the forest, shrubs and wildflowers are common, such as the fireweed. The other type is the lichen woodland or sparse taiga, with trees that are farther-spaced and lichen ground cover; the latter is common in the northernmost taiga.[26[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-25|]]] In the northernmost taiga the forest cover is not only more sparse, but often stunted in growth form; moreover, ice pruned asymmetric Black Spruce (in North America) are often seen, with diminished foliage on the windward side.[27[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-26|]]] In Canada, Scandinavia and Finland, the boreal forest is usually divided into three subzones: The high boreal (north boreal) or taiga zone; the middle boreal (closed forest); and the southern boreal, a closed canopy boreal forest with some scattered temperate deciduous trees among the conifers,[28[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-27|]]] such as maple, elm and oak. This southern boreal forest experiences the longest and warmest growing season of the biome, and in some regions (including Scandinavia, Finland and western Russia) this subzone is commonly used for agricultural purposes. The boreal forest is home to many types of berries; some are confined to the southern and middle closed boreal forest (such as raspberry), others grow in most areas of the taiga (such as cranberry and cloudberry), and some can grow in both the taiga and the low arctic (southern part of) tundra (such as bilberry and lingonberry).
The forests of the taiga are largely coniferous, dominated by larch, spruce, fir, and pine. The woodland mix varies according to geography and climate so for example the Eastern Canadian forests ecoregion of the higher elevations of the Laurentian Mountains and the northern Appalachian Mountains in Canada is dominated by balsam fir Abies balsamea, while further north the Eastern Canadian Shield taiga of northern Quebec and Labrador is notably black spruce Picea mariana and tamarack larch Larix laricina.
Evergreen species in the taiga (spruce, fir, and pine) have a number of adaptations specifically for survival in harsh taiga winters, although larch, the most cold-tolerant of all trees,[citation needed] is deciduous. Taiga trees tend to have shallow roots to take advantage of the thin soils, while many of them seasonally alter their biochemistry to make them more resistant to freezing, called "hardening".[29[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-autogenerated2-28|]]] The narrow conical shape of northern conifers, and their downward-drooping limbs, also help them shed snow.[29[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-autogenerated2-28|]]]
Because the sun is low in the horizon for most of the year, it is difficult for plants to generate energy from photosynthesis. Pine, spruce and fir do not lose their leaves seasonally and are able to photosynthesize with their older leaves in late winter and spring when light is good but temperatures are still too low for new growth to commence. The adaptation of evergreen needles limits the water lost due to transpiration and their dark green color increases their absorption of sunlight. Although precipitation is not a limiting factor, the ground freezes during the winter months and plant roots are unable to absorb water, so desiccation can be a severe problem in late winter for evergreens.
external image 220px-Ptilium_crista-castrensis.jpg
Moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis) cover on the floor of taiga
Although the taiga is dominated by coniferous forests, some broadleaf trees also occur, notably birch, aspen, willow, and rowan. Many smaller herbaceous plants grow closer to the ground. Periodic stand-replacing wildfires (with return times of between 20–200 years) clear out the tree canopies, allowing sunlight to invigorate new growth on the forest floor. For some species, wildfires are a necessary part of the life cycle in the taiga; some, e.g. Jack Pine have cones which only open to release their seed after a fire, dispersing their seeds onto the newly cleared ground. Grasses grow wherever they can find a patch of sun, and mosses and lichens thrive on the damp ground and on the sides of tree trunks. In comparison with other biomes, however, the taiga has low biological diversity.
Coniferous trees are the dominant plants of the taiga biome. A very few species in four main genera are found: the evergreen spruce, fir, and pine, and the deciduous larch. In North America, one or two species of fir and one or two species of spruce are dominant. Across Scandinavia and western Russia, the Scots pine is a common matthew trejos 2component of the taiga, while taiga of the Russian Far East and Mongolia is dominated by larch.

Fauna
external image 220px-Brown-bear-in-spring.jpg
Brown bear, Kamchatka peninsula. Brown bears are among the largest and most widespread taiga Omnivores.
The boreal forest, or taiga, supports a large range of animals. Canada's boreal forest includes 85 species of mammals, 130 species of fish, and an estimated 32,000 species of insects.[30[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-29|]]] Insects play a critical role as pollinators, decomposers, and as a part of the food web. Many nesting birds rely on them for food. The cold winters and short summers make the taiga a challenging biome for reptiles and amphibians, which depend on environmental conditions to regulate their body temperatures, and there are only a few species in the boreal forest. Some hibernate underground in winter.
The taiga is home to a number of large herbivorous mammals, such as moose and reindeer/caribou. Some areas of the more southern closed boreal forest also have populations of other deer species such as the elk (wapiti) and roe deer.[[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-30|]]][32[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-31|]]] There is also a range of rodent species including beaver, squirrel, mountain hare, snowshoe hare, and vole. These species have evolved to survive the harsh winters in their native ranges. Some larger mammals, such as bears, eat heartily during the summer in order to gain weight, and then go into hibernation during the winter. Other animals have adapted layers of fur or feathers to insulate them from the cold.
A number of wildlife species threatened or endangered with extinction can be found in the Canadian boreal forest, including woodland caribou, American black bear, grizzly bear, wood bison and wolverine. Habitat loss, mainly due to logging, is the primary cause of decline for these species.
Due to the climate, carnivorous diets are an inefficient means of obtaining energy; energy is limited, and most energy is lost between trophic levels. Predatory birds (owls and eagles) and other smaller carnivores, including foxes and weasels, feed on the rodents. Larger carnivores, such as lynx and wolves, prey on the larger animals. Omnivores, such as bears and raccoons are fairly common, sometimes picking through human garbage.
More than 300 species of birds have their nesting grounds in the taiga.[33[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-32|]]] Siberian Thrush, White-throated Sparrow, and Black-throated Green Warbler migrate to this habitat to take advantage of the long summer days and abundance of insects found around the numerous bogs and lakes. Of the 300 species of birds that summer in the taiga only 30 stay for the winter.[34[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-33|]]] These are either carrion-feeding or large raptors that can take live mammal prey, including Golden Eagle, Rough-legged Buzzard (also known as the Rough-legged Hawk), and Raven, or else seed-eating birds, including several species of grouse and crossbills
By Joseph Rodriguez

  1. The Taiga Ecosystem is one of the largest Ecosystem in the world. The Taiga Ecosystem can go under -30 degrees. Long, cold winters, and short, mild, wet summers are typical of this region. In the winter, chilly winds from the arctic cause bitterly cold weather in the taiga. The length of day also varies with the seasons. Winter days are short, while summer days are long because of the tilt of the earth on its axis. Fire is not uncommon in the taiga during the summer. Fires may seem destructive, but they actually help this biome by removing old sick trees, making room for new growth. Precipitation is relatively high in the taiga and falls as snow during the winter and rain during the summer. The total yearly precipitation in the taiga biome is 10 - 30 inches (25 - 75 cm).i fartedmatthew trejso