what was the area next to the river nile called ?
this area was known as the black land further away from the river was red land a region of inhospitable desert
An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.[2] These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.[3]As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment,[4] they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces[5] (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem).[6]
Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems is obtained primarily from the sun. It generally enters the system through photosynthesis, a process that also captures carbon from the atmosphere. By feeding on plants and on one another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomasspresent. By breaking down dead organic matter, decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be readily used by plants and other microbes.[7]
Ecosystems are controlled both by external and internal factors. External factors such as climate, the parent material which forms the soil and topography, control the overall structure of an ecosystem and the way things work within it, but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem.[8] Other external factors include time and potential biota. Ecosystems are dynamic entities—invariably, they are subject to periodic disturbances and are in the process of recovering from some past disturbance.[9] Ecosystems in similar environments that are located in different parts of the world can have very different characteristics simply because they contain different species.[8] The introduction of non-native species can cause substantial shifts in ecosystem function. Internal factors not only control ecosystem processes but are also controlled by them and are often subject to feedback loops.[8] While the resource inputs are generally controlled by external processes like climate and parent material, the availability of these resources within the ecosystem is controlled by internal factors like decomposition, root competition or shading.[8] Other internal factors include disturbance, succession and the types of species present. Although humans exist and operate within ecosystems, their cumulative effects are large enough to influence external factors like climate.[8]
Biodiversity affects ecosystem function, as do the processes of disturbance and succession. Ecosystems provide a variety of goods and services upon which people depend; the principles of ecosystem management suggest that rather than managing individual species, natural resources should be managed at the level of the ecosystem itself. Classifying ecosystems into ecologically homogeneous units is an important step towards effective ecosystem management, but there is no single, agreed-upon way to do this.

Given how low the rivers already are in Massachusetts, it would be harmful to permit municipalities to withdraw significantly more water from the ground than they currently are, because the rivers could run dry and fish would die.’’ Rob Moir quoted in the Boston Globe, March 31, 2012
Record Low Water Levels and State Management Plan Threaten MA Watersheds and River Ecosystems
Rivers throughout Massachusetts are running at record low levels this spring, the result of one of the warmest and driest winters on record. If these drought conditions continue into the summer, many environmental advocates and state officials worry that river levels will be too low for resident fish to survive and for migratory fish to spawn.
Meanwhile, the public comment period just closed for the state's Sustainable Water Management Initiative (SWMI). Recently, ORI delivered a letter with many comments signed by over 1,000 members. We also collaborated with 24 signatory organizations on the letter from the Massachusetts Rivers Alliance. While SWMI is the result of much collaborative work and represents a big step towards ecosystem-based management, it also encourages municipalities to draw more ground water than we think watersheds can sustain in an average rainfall year. And, the regulators do not account for water taken by private and corporate wells!
It seems wrong for the state to encourage taking more water with a liberal water usage permitting process when we have made progress in conserving water in Massachusetts. Over the last two decades water usage in the MWRA service area has gone down over 100 million gallons per day. Withdrawals of more groundwater can more greatly overwhelm sewage treatment operations. In March 2010, extraordinarily high rainfall caused approximately 15 million gallons of sewage to spill from the Deer Island wastewater treatment plant into Boston Harbor. We certainly do not need more of that! Conservation and responsible water use is good for both ends of the pipeline.
Given how low the rivers already are in Massachusetts, it would be harmful to permit municipalities to withdraw significantly more water from the ground than they currently are, because the rivers could run dry and fish would die.’’ Rob Moir quoted in the Boston Globe, March 31, 2012
Record Low Water Levels and State Management Plan Threaten MA Watersheds and River Ecosystems
Rivers throughout Massachusetts are running at record low levels this spring, the result of one of the warmest and driest winters on record. If these drought conditions continue into the summer, many environmental advocates and state officials worry that river levels will be too low for resident fish to survive and for migratory fish to spawn.
Meanwhile, the public comment period just closed for the state's Sustainable Water Management Initiative (SWMI). Recently, ORI delivered a letter with many comments signed by over 1,000 members. We also collaborated with 24 signatory organizations on the letter from the Massachusetts Rivers Alliance. While SWMI is the result of much collaborative work and represents a big step towards ecosystem-based management, it also encourages municipalities to draw more ground water than we think watersheds can sustain in an average rainfall year. And, the regulators do not account for water taken by private and corporate wells!
It seems wrong for the state to encourage taking more water with a liberal water usage permitting process when we have made progress in conserving water in Massachusetts. Over the last two decades water usage in the MWRA service area has gone down over 100 million gallons per day. Withdrawals of more groundwater can more greatly overwhelm sewage treatment operations. In March 2010, extraordinarily high rainfall caused approximately 15 million gallons of sewage to spill from the Deer Island wastewater treatment plant into Boston Harbor. We certainly do not need more of that! Conservation and responsible water use is good for both ends of the pipeline.
Rivers and streams can be found throughout the entire state of Michigan. They give people an excellent opportunity to view the interaction between
wildlife and fish
communities They provide recreation and beautiful scenery as well. The wildlife and fish in these systems, along with the environment in which they live, make up the stream ecosystem. During this exercise you will learn how animals and fish survive within the stream ecosystem and how the stream ecosystem has been influenced over time.
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Hello my name is Jose Ventura from class 5-999 here is the details about the project that I am working on.

3D MODEL OF POLLUTION OF RIVERS



Below shows one way of making a miniature river basin. The finished model shows the main features of a river basin.


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What will you need?

An A4 sheet of cardboard (cereal box), newspaper, egg box, wallpaper paste, string, blue and green paint, paint brush, scissors, blu-tack, and glue.
For the pollution I will use: candy wrapper, paper, pieces of plastic.

PROCESS;


Cut up the egg box and arrange it to form the steep mountain areas for your mini river basin. You may also want to roll some of the newspaper up and use it for the mountains.


Mix the wallpaper paste with water; it should be quite runny. Cut up the newspaper into small pieces, dip them into the paste and put them over the egg boxes. You will probably need a few layers and each layer will take a while to dry. Remember the river will start in a steep area and finish in a flat area.

When you have a suitable shape you can paint it. Paint the land first and then plan where your river will go and add it onto the model.
Then you can add the pollution.
















RAINELL TEJEDA'S EXAMPLE OF RIVER ECOSYSTEM:

rainell river.jpg