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Hello, my name is sophie kirby from cass


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Hello, my name is Josneida Cornelio from class

5-999 Here are some facts about Taiga Ecosystem.

forest stretches across Canada the U.S.A alaska sweden finland and norway Russla northern kazstan nortnern zakstan northern. mongolia and northern. japan the aver age temperaure reaches 10*c for no more than 4 months in the yearso plants and animals have a bus, few months Befor slowing right down or nibernating for the other eight months.


1. what is population? A system, on a group of interconnected elements, formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment. 2.what is a cop interests or a common heritage.

4. whatEcobgy. thethe position or function of anorganism in a community of plants and animals.

5. amajoorecolog, cal coommunity










matthew trejso






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matthew trejos 3

matthew trejos 2



external image taiga_forest_canada.jpgfacts about the taiga biome by matthew trejos
1.The taiga biome is the largest terrestrial biome and extends across Europe,North America,and Asia.

2.The taiga biome is very cold during the winter.Temperatures can reach as low as -60° F.

3.Plants can only grow during the summer when temperatures are favorable. This growing season only lasts about three months.

4.There is not much variety in plants. Majority of the plants are conifer trees which is why the taiga is referred to as the coniferous forest.

5.For six months out of the year, the temperature in the taiga biome is below freezing.

By ashley infante and my partner lourdes ramales

This is some facts about the Taiga Ecosystem.The Taiga is one of the three main forest biomes.The other two are the temperate forest and the tropicalrainforest.The Taiga is the driest and coldest of the three.The Taiga is sometimes called the boreal forest or the coniferous forest.It is largest of all the land biomes.The average annual rainfall is approximately 33 inches for the taiga biome.The animals that lives in the taiga are mooses ,lynx bears,wolverines,foxes,and squirrels.The largest taiga biomes are found in russia and canada.The main seasons in the taiga are winter and summer.The spring and autumn are so short,you hardly know they exist.Many of the animals that live in the Taiga/boreal forest biome are able to change color based on time of year.





By Joseph Rodriguez

The Taiga Ecosystem is one of the largest Ecosystem in the world. The Taiga Ecosystem can go under -30 degrees. Long, cold winters, and short, mild, wet summers are typical of this region. In the winter, chilly winds from the arctic cause bitterly cold weather in the taiga. The length of day also varies with the seasons. Winter days are short, while summer days are long because of the tilt of the earth on its axis. Fire is not uncommon in the taiga during the summer. Fires may seem destructive, but they actually help this biome by removing old sick trees, making room for new growth. Precipitation is relatively high in the taiga and falls as snow during the winter and rain during the summer. The total yearly precipitation in the taiga biome is 10 - 30 inches (25 - 75 cm).

Archangelsk_taiga.JPGro





By xavier Bonano

This is my re-search of the Taiga ecosystem,I hope you will find it helpfull.

Taiga (pronounced /ˈtaɪɡə/, Russian: тайга́; from Turkic[1[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-0|]]] or Mongolian), also known as the boreal forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests.
Taiga is the world's largest terrestrial biome. In North America it covers most of inland Canada and Alaska as well as parts of the extreme northern continental United States and is known as the Northwoods.[2[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-1|]]] It also covers most of Sweden, Finland, inland and northern Norway, much of Russia (especially Siberia), northern Kazakhstan, northern Mongolia, and northern Japan (on the island of Hokkaidō).
The term "boreal forest" is sometimes, particularly in Canada, used to refer to the more southerly part of the biome, while the term taiga is often used to describe the more barren areas of the northernmost part of the taiga approaching the tree line.
Climate and geography
Taiga is the world's largest land biome, and makes up 29% of the world's forest cover;[3[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-2|]]] the largest areas are located in Russia and Canada. The taiga is the terrestrial biome with the lowest annual average temperatures after the tundra and permanent ice caps. Extreme winter minimums in the northern taiga are typically lower than those of the tundra. The lowest reliably recorded temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere were recorded in the taiga of northeastern Russia. The taiga or boreal forest has a subarctic climate with very large temperature range between seasons, but the long and cold winter is the dominant feature. This climate is classified as Dfc, Dwc, Dsc, Dfd and Dwd in the Köppen climate classification scheme,[4[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-3|]]] meaning that the short summer (24-hr average 10 °C or more) lasts 1–3 months and always less than 4 months. There are also some much smaller areas grading towards the oceanic Cfc climate with milder winters, whilst the extreme south and (in Eurasia) west of the taiga reaches into humid continental climates (Dfb, Dwb) with longer summers. The mean annual temperature generally varies from -5 °C to 5 °C,[5[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-4|]]] but there are taiga areas in eastern Siberia and interior Alaska-Yukon where the mean annual reaches down to -10 °C.[6[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-5|]]][7[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-6|]]] According to some sources, the boreal forest grades into a temperate mixed forest when mean annual temperature reaches about 3 °C.[8[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-7|]]] Discontinuous permafrost is found in areas with mean annual temperature below 0 °C, whilst in the Dfd and Dwd climate zones continuous permafrost occurs and restricts growth to very shallow-rooted trees like Siberian larch. The winters, with average temperatures below freezing, last five to seven months. Temperatures vary from −54 °C to 30 °C (-65 °F to 86 °F) throughout the whole year. The summers, while short, are generally warm and humid. In much of the taiga, -20 °C would be a typical winter day temperature and 18 °C an average summer day.
external image 220px-Talkessel_von_Werchojansk.JPG
The taiga in the river valley near Verkhoyansk, Russia, at 67°N, must deal with the coldest winter temperatures in the northern hemisphere, but the extreme continentality of the climate gives an average daily high of 22 °C in July.
The growing season, when the vegetation in the taiga comes alive, is usually slightly longer than the climatic definition of summer as the plants of the boreal biome have a lower threshold to trigger growth. In Canada, Scandinavia and Finland, the growing season is often estimated by using the period of the year when the 24-hr average temperature is 5 °C or more.[9[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-8|]]] For the Taiga Plains in Canada, growing season varies from 80 to 150 days, and in the Taiga Shield from 100 to 140 days.[10[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-9|]]] Some sources claim 130 days growing season as typical for the taiga.[11[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-10|]]] Other sources mention that 50–100 frost-free days are characteristic.[12[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-11|]]] Data for locations in southwest Yukon gives 80–120 frost-free days.[13[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-12|]]] The closed canopy boreal forest in Kenozyorsky National Park near Plesetsk, Arkhangelsk Province, Russia, on average has 108 frost-free days.[14[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-13|]]] The longest growing season is found in the smaller areas with oceanic influences; in coastal areas of Scandinavia and Finland, the growing season of the closed boreal forest can be 145–180 days.[15[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-14|]]] The shortest growing season is found at the northern taiga–tundra ecotone, where the northern taiga forest no longer can grow and the tundra dominates the landscape when the growing season is down to 50–70 days,[16[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-15|]]][17[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-16|]]] and the 24-hr average of the warmest month of the year usually is 10 °C or less.[18[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-17|]]] High latitudes mean that the sun does not rise far above the horizon, and less solar energy is received than further south. But the high latitude also ensures very long summer days, as the sun stays above the horizon nearly 20 hours each day, with only around 6 hours of daylight occurring in the dark winters, depending on latitude. The areas of the taiga inside the Arctic circle have midnight sun in mid-summer and polar night in mid-winter.
external image 220px-Helvetinj%C3%A4rvi.JPG
Lakes and other water bodies are very common. The Helvetinjärvi National Park, Finland, situated in the closed canopy taiga (mid-boreal to south-boreal) [19[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-18|]]] with mean annual temperature of 4 °C.[20[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-19|]]]
The taiga experiences relatively low precipitation throughout the year (generally 200–750 mm annually, 1,000 mm in some areas), primarily as rain during the summer months, but also as fog and snow. This fog, especially predominant in low-lying areas during and after the thawing of frozen Arctic seas, means that sunshine is not abundant in the taiga even during the long summer days. As evaporation is consequently low for most of the year, precipitation exceeds evaporation, and is sufficient to sustain the dense vegetation growth. Snow may remain on the ground for as long as nine months in the northernmost extensions of the taiga ecozone.[21[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-20|]]]
In general, taiga grows to the south of the 10 °C July isotherm, but occasionally as far north as the 9 °C July isotherm.[22[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-21|]]] The southern limit is more variable, depending on rainfall; taiga may be replaced by forest steppe south of the 15 °C July isotherm where rainfall is very low, but more typically extends south to the 18 °C July isotherm, and locally where rainfall is higher (notably in eastern Siberia and adjacent Outer Manchuria) south to the 20 °C July isotherm. In these warmer areas the taiga has higher species diversity, with more warmth-loving species such as Korean Pine, Jezo Spruce, and Manchurian Fir, and merges gradually into mixed temperate forest or, more locally (on the Pacific Ocean coasts of North America and Asia), into coniferous temperate rainforests.
The area currently classified as taiga in Europe and North America (except Alaska) was recently glaciated. As the glaciers receded they left depressions in the topography that have since filled with water, creating lakes and bogs (especially muskeg soil) found throughout the taiga

Soils
Taiga soil tends to be young and poor in nutrients. It lacks the deep, organically enriched profile present in temperate deciduous forests.[23[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-autogenerated1-22|]]] The thinness of the soil is due largely to the cold, which hinders the development of soil and the ease with which plants can use its nutrients.[23[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-autogenerated1-22|]]] Fallen leaves and moss can remain on the forest floor for a long time in the cool, moist climate, which limits their organic contribution to the soil; acids from evergreen needles further leach the soil, creating spodosol, also known as podzol.[24[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-23|]]] Since the soil is acidic due to the falling pine needles, the forest floor has only lichensand some mosses growing on it. In clearings in the forest and in areas with more boreal deciduous trees, there are more herbs and
external image 220px-Yukon_River_near_Carmacks%2C_Yukon_-a.jpg

Yukon, Canada. Several of the world's longest rivers go through the taiga, including Ob, Yenisei, Lena, and Mackenzie.
berries growing. Diversity of soil organisms in the boreal forest is high, comparable to the tropical rainforest.[25[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-24|]]]

Flora
external image 170px-BaikalForest_%28pixinn.net%29.jpg
Boreal Forest near Lake Baikal in Russia
Since North America and Asia used to be connected by the Bering land bridge, a number of animal and plant species (more animals than plants) were able to colonize both continents and are distributed throughout the taiga biome (see Circumboreal Region). Others differ regionally, typically with each genus having several distinct species, each occupying different regions of the taiga. Taigas also have some small-leaved deciduous trees like birch, alder, willow, and poplar; mostly in areas escaping the most extreme winter cold. However, the Dahurian Larch tolerates the coldest winters in the northern hemisphere in eastern Siberia. The very southernmost parts of the taiga may have trees such as oak, maple, elm, and tilia scattered among the conifers, and there is usually a gradual transition into a temperate mixed forest, such as the Eastern forest-boreal transition of eastern Canada. In the interior of the continents with the driest climate, the boreal forests might grade into temperate grassland.
There are two major types of taiga. The southern part is the closed canopy forest, consisting of many closely spaced trees with mossy ground cover. In clearings in the forest, shrubs and wildflowers are common, such as the fireweed. The other type is the lichen woodland or sparse taiga, with trees that are farther-spaced and lichen ground cover; the latter is common in the northernmost taiga.[26[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-25|]]] In the northernmost taiga the forest cover is not only more sparse, but often stunted in growth form; moreover, ice pruned asymmetric Black Spruce (in North America) are often seen, with diminished foliage on the windward side.[27[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-26|]]] In Canada, Scandinavia and Finland, the boreal forest is usually divided into three subzones: The high boreal (north boreal) or taiga zone; the middle boreal (closed forest); and the southern boreal, a closed canopy boreal forest with some scattered temperate deciduous trees among the conifers,[28[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-27|]]] such as maple, elm and oak. This southern boreal forest experiences the longest and warmest growing season of the biome, and in some regions (including Scandinavia, Finland and western Russia) this subzone is commonly used for agricultural purposes. The boreal forest is home to many types of berries; some are confined to the southern and middle closed boreal forest (such as raspberry), others grow in most areas of the taiga (such as cranberry and cloudberry), and some can grow in both the taiga and the low arctic (southern part of) tundra (such as bilberry and lingonberry).
The forests of the taiga are largely coniferous, dominated by larch, spruce, fir, and pine. The woodland mix varies according to geography and climate so for example the Eastern Canadian forests ecoregion of the higher elevations of the Laurentian Mountains and the northern Appalachian Mountains in Canada is dominated by balsam fir Abies balsamea, while further north the Eastern Canadian Shield taiga of northern Quebec and Labrador is notably black spruce Picea mariana and tamarack larch Larix laricina.
Evergreen species in the taiga (spruce, fir, and pine) have a number of adaptations specifically for survival in harsh taiga winters, although larch, the most cold-tolerant of all trees,[citation needed] is deciduous. Taiga trees tend to have shallow roots to take advantage of the thin soils, while many of them seasonally alter their biochemistry to make them more resistant to freezing, called "hardening".[29[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-autogenerated2-28|]]] The narrow conical shape of northern conifers, and their downward-drooping limbs, also help them shed snow.[29[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-autogenerated2-28|]]]
Because the sun is low in the horizon for most of the year, it is difficult for plants to generate energy from photosynthesis. Pine, spruce and fir do not lose their leaves seasonally and are able to photosynthesize with their older leaves in late winter and spring when light is good but temperatures are still too low for new growth to commence. The adaptation of evergreen needles limits the water lost due to transpiration and their dark green color increases their absorption of sunlight. Although precipitation is not a limiting factor, the ground freezes during the winter months and plant roots are unable to absorb water, so desiccation can be a severe problem in late winter for evergreens.
external image 220px-Ptilium_crista-castrensis.jpg
Moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis) cover on the floor of taiga
Although the taiga is dominated by coniferous forests, some broadleaf trees also occur, notably birch, aspen, willow, and rowan. Many smaller herbaceous plants grow closer to the ground. Periodic stand-replacing wildfires (with return times of between 20–200 years) clear out the tree canopies, allowing sunlight to invigorate new growth on the forest floor. For some species, wildfires are a necessary part of the life cycle in the taiga; some, e.g. Jack Pine have cones which only open to release their seed after a fire, dispersing their seeds onto the newly cleared ground. Grasses grow wherever they can find a patch of sun, and mosses and lichens thrive on the damp ground and on the sides of tree trunks. In comparison with other biomes, however, the taiga has low biological diversity.
Coniferous trees are the dominant plants of the taiga biome. A very few species in four main genera are found: the evergreen spruce, fir, and pine, and the deciduous larch. In North America, one or two species of fir and one or two species of spruce are dominant. Across Scandinavia and western Russia, the Scots pine is a common matthew trejos 2component of the taiga, while taiga of the Russian Far East and Mongolia is dominated by larch.

Fauna
external image 220px-Brown-bear-in-spring.jpg
Brown bear, Kamchatka peninsula. Brown bears are among the largest and most widespread taiga Omnivores.
The boreal forest, or taiga, supports a large range of animals. Canada's boreal forest includes 85 species of mammals, 130 species of fish, and an estimated 32,000 species of insects.[30[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-29|]]] Insects play a critical role as pollinators, decomposers, and as a part of the food web. Many nesting birds rely on them for food. The cold winters and short summers make the taiga a challenging biome for reptiles and amphibians, which depend on environmental conditions to regulate their body temperatures, and there are only a few species in the boreal forest. Some hibernate underground in winter.
The taiga is home to a number of large herbivorous mammals, such as moose and reindeer/caribou. Some areas of the more southern closed boreal forest also have populations of other deer species such as the elk (wapiti) and roe deer.[[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-30|]]][32[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-31|]]] There is also a range of rodent species including beaver, squirrel, mountain hare, snowshoe hare, and vole. These species have evolved to survive the harsh winters in their native ranges. Some larger mammals, such as bears, eat heartily during the summer in order to gain weight, and then go into hibernation during the winter. Other animals have adapted layers of fur or feathers to insulate them from the cold.
A number of wildlife species threatened or endangered with extinction can be found in the Canadian boreal forest, including woodland caribou, American black bear, grizzly bear, wood bison and wolverine. Habitat loss, mainly due to logging, is the primary cause of decline for these species.
Due to the climate, carnivorous diets are an inefficient means of obtaining energy; energy is limited, and most energy is lost between trophic levels. Predatory birds (owls and eagles) and other smaller carnivores, including foxes and weasels, feed on the rodents. Larger carnivores, such as lynx and wolves, prey on the larger animals. Omnivores, such as bears and raccoons are fairly common, sometimes picking through human garbage.
More than 300 species of birds have their nesting grounds in the taiga.[33[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-32|]]] Siberian Thrush, White-throated Sparrow, and Black-throated Green Warbler migrate to this habitat to take advantage of the long summer days and abundance of insects found around the numerous bogs and lakes. Of the 300 species of birds that summer in the taiga only 30 stay for the winter.[34[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga#cite_note-33|]]] These are either carrion-feeding or large raptors that can take live mammal prey, including Golden Eagle, Rough-legged Buzzard (also known as the Rough-legged Hawk), and Raven, or else seed-eating birds, including several species of grouse and crossbills
By Joseph Rodriguez

  1. The Taiga Ecosystem is one of the largest Ecosystem in the world. The Taiga Ecosystem can go under -30 degrees. Long, cold winters, and short, mild, wet summers are typical of this region. In the winter, chilly winds from the arctic cause bitterly cold weather in the taiga. The length of day also varies with the seasons. Winter days are short, while summer days are long because of the tilt of the earth on its axis. Fire is not uncommon in the taiga during the summer. Fires may seem destructive, but they actually help this biome by removing old sick trees, making room for new growth. Precipitation is relatively high in the taiga and falls as snow during the winter and rain during the summer. The total yearly precipitation in the taiga biome is 10 - 30 inches (25 - 75 cm).i fartedmatthew trejso