Hello my name is Azzureya Williams from Class 5-777 and these are my 5 facts about the the coral reef.

1. The coral reef is one of the major marine biomes.

2.Since polyps need to eat to stay alive you can think of the coral reef are made up of rout but they actually live organisms.

3.The coral reef has a lot of water and fish and sharks.

4. There is a lot of jellyfish and animal.

5. Reef that are noticeable in size like the c-eat barrier reef in Australia are between 5 and 10,000 year old.
figure 1- coral reef picture
figure 2- food chain.
figuer 3- food web

figure 4- food pyramid

What is an Energy Pyramid?:
1. The energy pyramid is a model for how energy spreads through an ecosystem.

2. Decomposer-meanwhile, like bacteria and fungi break down dead animal and plant matter. This recycles nutrients back into the ecosystem .

3. food webs - made of may interconnected and overlapping chains .It all starts with producers.They crate all all of the usable energy in an ecosystem .

4. Photosynthesis- Tiny plant cells called zooxanthellae live within most types of coral polyps. They provide the coral with foods resulting from photosynthesis. Click the image for a larger view of these cells. Most reef-building corals contain photosynthetic algae, called zooxanthellae, that live in their tissues.

Hello my name is Daniel Tapia from class 5-777 and here is some fact about Coral Reef
1. Coral are sessile which means they don`t move around.
2. Instead theyre attached to a hard surface like a rork or a shipwreck or even the skeleton of other corals
3. Coral reefs are generally found in clear tropical oceans
4. The Sun is the source of energy for the coral reef ecosystem
5. Animals use coral reefs either as a stapping paint like an oasis as they travel the deep blue sea or they live as residents at the reef

coral reef ecosystem

Daniel food Web.jpgFood pyramid

Daniel fc.jpg Food chain

1.what is a ecosystem-complex interaction of living things and their enviornment.
2.wha is a community-A group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same reginin and interacting with each other.
3.group of organime of the same species populating given area


Hello,my name is Allyson Muniz and my partners Lizzette Badillo , and Leslie Orea. And we are form the 5-1 class are doing The Coral Reef.Here are some 5 mind blowing facts you have to read.

~Allyson Muniz

1) These undersea palaces are homes to more species of fish,coral,and other type of marine life than any other ocean habitat.

2) Coral reefs also provide many valuables services to people. For example, food, shorelines protection,and medicine are just the few of these benefits.These are also the best places to visit you want to marine life up close and personal.

3.) Coral reefs are experiencing a rapid decline in ecosystems health in most locations in which the once

thrive.Much of this problem in the direct or indirect results of human activity

4.) Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by coral.

5.) Coral reefs are built by colonies of tiny animals found in the marine waters that contain few nutrients . Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in a group.


1.) Ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

2.) Population: all the inhabitants of a particular town ,area ,or country.

3.) Community: a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.

4.) Niche: place or position.

5.) Biome: a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat ,forrest ,or tundra.

6.)Habitat:The natural home or environment of an animal,plant,or other organisms

Coral Reef Pictures

Coral Reef and Tropical Fish (Shutterstock www.shutterstock.com)
Coral Reef and Tropical Fish (Shutterstock www.shutterstock.com)

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Coral reef energy pyramid

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Coral Reef food chain

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Coral Reef food web

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I hope you enjoy these pictures of a energy pyramid,food chain,and food web.I hope this will help you guys in the future.


The world’s corals and coral reef ecosystems are in crisis. In just a few decades, scientists warn, these “rainforests of the sea” and all their rich biodiversity could disappear completely. While corals face numerous dangers, the overarching threats of GLOBAL WARMING and ocean acidification are the greatest, and they’re accelerating the decline of corals around the world. The year 2009 marked the warmest ocean temperatures ever recorded, putting corals at risk and foreshadowing what we can expect as climate change continues. Urgent action is needed to save the world’s coral reefs from extinction.

This is an example of a unhealthy coral reef.....

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That’s why the Center has expanded our efforts to conserve coral reefs. Our coral work began — and is ongoing — with defending elkhorn and staghorn corals, for which we earned federal protection for in 2006. In 2009 we filed a scientific petition to protect the 83 most vulnerable corals within U.S. waters — the corals that can benefit most from U.S. protection — as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Under pressure from the Center, the National Marine Fisheries Service released a status review of the 82 corals, finding that 56 of them are likely to go extinct before the end of the century primarily because of ocean warming, disease and ocean acidification.

Ten percent of the world's reefs have been completely destroyed. In the Philippines, where coral reef destruction is the worst, over 70% have been destroyed and only 5% can be said to be in good condition. What has happened to destroy so many reefs? Human population has become very large, and earth is warming.

There are two different ways in which humans have contributed to the degradation of the Earth's coral reefs, indirectly and directly. Indirectly, we have destroyed their environment. As you read earlier, coral reefs can live only in very CLEAN WATER. The large population centers near coasts has led to silting of reefs, pollution by nutrients that lead to algal growth that smothers the coral, and overfishing that has led to increase in number of predators that eat corals.

Warming of the ocean causes corals to sicken and die. Even a rise of one degree in the average water temperature can hurt the coral. Due to global warming, 1998 was the hottest year in the last six centuries and 1998 was the worst year for coral.The most obvious sign that coral is sick is CORAL BLEACHING. That is when either the algae inside die, or the algae leave the coral. The algae are what give coral its color, so without the algae, the coral has no color and the white of the limestone shell shines through the transparent coral bodies. People have been noticing coral bleaching since the turn of the century, but only since the 1980s has it gotten really bad.

Despite the importance of coral reefs, these wildlife habitats are imperiled throughout the world. A recent report estimated that 75 percent of remaining coral reefs are currently threatened, and many have already been lost. Even some of the most remote and pristine reefs are losing species.

Other Threats

Coral reefs are also being degraded by many other factors. The list of problems can seem endless: overfishing, fishing using cyanide and dynamite, pollution from sewage and agriculture, massive outbreaks of predatory starfish, invasive species, and sedimentation from poor land use practices. Reefs and their wildlife across the world are also affected by destructive fishing and exploitation to supply the coral reef wildlife trade. Fish, corals, and various invertebrates are all taken from reef habitats to serve as aquarium pets or decorative items. Although this trade can be conducted sustainably, wildlife populations are often overexploited to feed the demand for these animals. Sometimes poisons like cyanide are dumped into the water to stun fish and make them easier to capture. Sadly, fishing with cyanide often kills fish, corals, and other forms of wildlife, while degrading the reef habitat itself.

Unsustainable tourism: Tourism generates vast amounts of income for host countries. Where unregulated however, tourism pressures can cause damage to the very environment upon which the industry depends. Physical damage to the coral reefs can occur through contact from careless swimmers, divers, and poorly placed boat anchors. Hotels and resorts may also discharge untreated sewage and wastewater into the ocean, polluting the water and encouraging the growth of algae, which competes with corals for space on the reef.

Coastal development: The growth of coastal cities and towns generates a range of threats to nearby coral reefs. Where space is limited, airports and other construction projects may be built on land reclaimed from the sea. Sensitive habitats can be destroyed or disturbed by dredging activities to make deep-water channels or marinas, and through the dumping of waste materials. Where land development alters the natural flow of water, greater amounts of fresh water, nutrients and sediment can reach the reefs causing further degradation. Within the last 20 years, once prolific mangrove forests, which absorb massive amounts of nutrients and sediment from runoff caused by farming and construction, have been destroyed. Nutrient-rich water causes fleshy algae and phytoplankton to thrive in coastal areas in suffocating amounts known as algal blooms. Coral reefs are biological assemblages adapted to waters with low nutrient content, and the addition of nutrients favours species that disrupt the balance of the reef communities.

Global Warming

Higher sea temperatures from global warming have already caused major coral bleaching events. Bleaching occurs when corals respond to the stress of warmer temperatures by expelling the colorful algae that live within them. Some coral are able to recover, but too often the coral dies, and the entire ecosystem for which it forms the base, virtually disappears.

Longer-lasting and more extensive bleaching events are already on the rise, with further increases expected in the decades ahead as ocean temperatures continue to rise. Warmer waters are also expected to increase the incidence of other coral diseases such as black band disease, white band disease, white plague, and white pox, all of which can lead to mass mortality of coral, and subsequently the entire ecosystem it supports.

Ocean acidification--which occurs when oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere--is also a threat to coral. As the oceans become more acidic, the corals' ability to form skeletons through calcification is inhibited, causing their growth to slow. A doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide will reduce calcification in some corals by as much as 50 percent.

Sea level rise caused by melting sea ice and thermal expansion of the oceans could also cause problems for some reefs by making them too deep to receive adequate sunlight, another factor important for survival.


Coral reefs need clean water to thrive. From litter to waste oil, pollution is damaging reefs worldwide. Pollution from human activities inland can damage coral reefs when transported by rivers into coastal waters. Do your bit - do not drop litter or dispose of unwanted items on beaches, in the sea, or near storm drains.

The suite of problems facing coral reef ecosystems from land-based sources of pollution is broad and includes sediment, nutrients, and other pollutants from a variety of land-based activities that are transported in surface waters, runoff, groundwater seepage, and atmospheric deposition into coastal waters. There is compelling evidence that the sources have increased globally as a result of human-induced changes to watersheds. On the US islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, significant changes in the drainage basins due to agriculture, deforestation, feral grazing, fires, road building and other construction, and urbanization have in turn altered the character and volume of land-based pollution released to adjacent coral reef ecosystems. Many of these issues are further exacerbated due to specific characteristics exhibited in tropical island areas, all of which create unique management challenges when addressing issues related to land-based sources of pollution. A few examples include: high levels of rainfall; extreme weather events (hurricanes/ typhoons); highly erodible soils; limestone hydrologic features (Pacific atolls); and in some high islands, (American Samoa, Hawai`i), steep slopes abutting the coastal zone.

Sedimentation, including higher levels of suspended sediment in overlying waters, is commonly acknowledged to be one of the primary causes of coral reef ecosystem degradation. The combination of suspended, re-suspended, and deposited sediment act to limit coral growth, feeding patterns, photosynthesis, recruitment, and survivorship, as shown by numerous studies in a variety of settings. Other impacts of sediment include directly smothering and abrading coral. Although some corals can flourish in turbid water, such reefs are typically less diverse and are more restricted in depth ranges than those in clear water. To underscore this point, the US Commission on Ocean Policy reported that "pollution and run-off from coastal areas also deprive reefs of life-sustaining light and oxygen" and many Local Action Strategy (LAS) groups of the US Coral Reef Task Force have identified land-based pollution to reefs as a major area of concern.

In addition to sediment, land-based sources of pollution to coral reef ecosystems include pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pathogens, and excess nutrients. These pollutants can cause or exacerbate the deleterious effects of watershed transport of pollutant constituents onto coral reefs. Excess nutrients, including dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus from sewage, wastewater, and fertilizers, promote the growth of algae that compete with juvenile and adult corals for space on benthic reef surfaces and can affect success of coral settlement and in extreme cases can result in eutrophic conditions in reef waters. In addition, land-based inputs may both directly contribute land-derived pathogens and/or exacerbate the effect of in situ pathogens on coral reef ecosystems.

Finally, the local impacts of land-based sources of pollution work in synergy with global and regional threats such as climate change, land use practices, and freshwater inputs, magnifying the effect of both types of stressors. In particular, the potential for increased frequency and intensity of storm events associated with climate change could exacerbate run-off of sediment and other pollutants.


Climate change and ocean acidification - which is diminishing corals like those in the Great Barrier Reef - typically get all the attention. But other important factors are at play as well, such as overfishing, pollution and coastal development.

According to the World Resources Institute, some 75 percent of the world's coral reefs are now threatened and more than 20 percent have disappeared since climate and fishing disturbances have accelerated in the past 30 years. At the same time, only 27 percent of the world's coral reefs are contained within marine protected areas. At this rate, this combination of factors could cost the world its coral by the year 2100.

Although there are many problems facing reefs today, rising seawater temperature as a result of climate change is one of the most serious causes of stress to corals throughout the world. When temperatures are too high, the relationship between corals and their symbiotic microalgae breaks down. The algae are what give corals some of their bright colors, so when this happens, corals appear white or "bleached." Just one degree above the typical summer max is enough to bleach many corals. If the temperature is too high for too long, corals and their microalgae are unable to recover. Over the past 30 years, bleaching has become more frequent, more intense, and more widespread. This has led to massive die offs of corals throughout the world. Warmer ocean temperatures cause even more problems when it comes to disease – high temperatures allow corals to become sick more easily, and allow disease-causing organisms to grow faster. There is a huge array of different diseases in corals. Most of them are named after how they change a sick coral’s appearance, like black band, white band, white spot and purple blotch diseases.

While climate change and the resulting ocean acidification and coral bleaching does pose a major threat to the region, the report – Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012 – found that local pressures such as tourism, overfishing and pollution posed the biggest problems.

And these factors have made the loss of the two main grazer species, the parrotfish and sea urchin, the key driver of coral decline in the Caribbean.

It is no secret that in the midst of climate change, coral reefs around the world are suffering. However, a warming world is not the only factor putting these reefs in danger - overfishing also plagues these colorful ecosystems. And now new research offers a glimmer of hope, finding that fish are the answer to their problems.


But restoring key fish populations and improving protection from overfishing and pollution could help the reefs recover and make them more resilient to the impacts of climate change, according to the study from the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and the United Nations Environment Programme.

According to the authors, restoring parrotfish populations and improving other management strategies could help the reefs recover. “The rate at which the Caribbean corals have been declining is truly alarming,” said Carl Gustaf Lundin, director of IUCN’s global marine and polar programme. “But this study brings some very encouraging news: the fate of Caribbean corals is not beyond our control and there are some very concrete steps that we can take to help them recover.”

While reef habitats appear to be robust enough to withstand almost anything, they are extremely fragile. Not only are most corals brittle, but they usually need pristine, clear, warm, relatively nutrient-free waters to survive. Over the past 50 years, humans have put an enormous amount of pressure on coral reef environments by altering their waters and tearing up their foundations. From dynamite fishing to global warming, we are rapidly sending the world’s reefs into oblivion. The latest reports state that as much as 27 percent of monitored reef formations have been lost and as much as 32 percent are at risk of being lost within the next 32 years.

For marine biologists, the destruction of the reefs has proven to be as frustrating as it is heartbreaking. Because reef habitats are so complex, and because worldwide reef monitoring and mapping efforts only began a little over a decade ago, scientists simply do not have enough information to keep tabs on the destruction of the reefs, let alone come up with an effective solution. At the rate the reefs are disappearing, they may be beyond repair by the time a comprehensive plan to save reefs can be put into place.

Scientists at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and at several universities around the world, however, may have at least a partial solution to this problem. They have been examining detailed images of the ocean collected by the Landsat 7 and other high-resolution remote sensing satellites. While these types of satellites were primarily launched to observe land-based change, they have also been found to produce detailed images of shallow waters around the ocean’s margins. Using these images, the scientists have been able to map reefs in a fraction of the time it takes to map them by boat or airplane. With funding, the researchers believe they could have a comprehensive map of the world’s reefs within three years. This map would not only be useful for identifying large-scale threats to the reefs, but would allow the researchers to locate those reefs that are in the most trouble.

According to scientists from the Australian Institute of Marine Science, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), James Cook University, and other organizations, fish are the key ingredients in a new recipe to diagnose and restore degraded coral reef ecosystems. At least, in those regions that are severely overfished.

For moderately or lightly fished reefs, success requires knowing which fish to catch, how many, and which to leave behind, the researchers say.

In the journal Nature, the authors assessed fish biomass and functional groups from more than 800 coral reefs worldwide and used them to estimate recovery periods for both lightly fished and overfished reefs. The scientists speculate that maintaining and restoring fish populations and the functions they provide can increase the resilience of reefs to large-scale threats such as climate change.

"By studying remote and marine protected areas, we were able to estimate how much fish there would be on coral reefs without fishing, as well as how long it should take newly protected areas to recover," study lead author M. Aaron MacNeil, Senior Research Scientist for the Australian Institute of Marine Science, said in a statement. "This is important because we can now gauge the impact reef fisheries have had historically and make informed management decisions that include time frames for recovery."

"The methods used to estimate reef health in this study are simple enough that most fishers and managers can take the weight and pulse of their reef and keep it in the healthy range," noted co-author Tim McClanahan, WCS Senior Conservationist. "Fishers and managers now have the ability to map out a plan for recovery of reef health that will give them the best chance to adapt to climate change."

Coral reef experts agree that fishing is a primary driver in the degradation of reef function. By removing too many herbivorous and predatory fish species, it deprives coral reefs of critical ecosystem functions, and also hinders their ability to fight off other threats.


The world's coral reefs are being damaged by harmful runoff, which new research shows is being caused by the clearing of forests. Preventing soil erosion may help protect the reefs, which shield coastlines from ocean waves, draw tourists with their brilliant colors and provide a habitat for fish.

For centuries, humans around the world have been clearing away forests to make room for livestock, farming, and other uses. Scientists say that when the forest cover is lost, soil washes away into rivers that flow into the oceans and, they believe, onto coral reefs.

That runoff adds nutrients to the ocean water. It's essentially too much of a good thing, and scientists have long suspected it can kill the coral. Runoff also clouds the water, blocking light from reaching the reef.


Battered by rising ocean temperatures and this year’s powerful El Niño, many of the world’s coral reefs are slowly dying. Scientists have found that Australia’s Great Barrier Reef is experiencing the worst coral bleaching event they’ve ever seen (bleaching happens when warm water temperatures cause the corals to expel the symbiotic algae that supply the reef with oxygen and nutrients). As a result, the focus of marine biologists has moved from protecting existing reefs to finding ways to restore and rebuild them.

A paper published in Environmental Science and Technology proposes a novel and low-tech method for helping coral survive: blowing bubbles through seawater. This simple technique, say the authors, could remove carbon dioxide from coastal waters and reduce ocean acidification—not the primary cause of coral death but a factor in weakening them.

Other scientists, such as Ken Nedimyer, founder of the Coral Restoration Foundation, are painstakingly growing coral in nurseries made up of PVC trees and transplanting them to the wild. A joint research project by the Australian Institute of Marine Sciences and the University of Hawaii, supported by Paul Allen’s Ocean Challenge foundation, is looking at whether we can hasten the evolution of more resilient corals. Similarly, Steve Palumbi of Stanford’s Hopkins Marine Station is studying certain types of coral that seem to be more resistant to higher temperatures than others, to see if those qualities can be selectively bred.Many of these efforts are essentially geo engineering, and whether they can be scaled up to preserve a significant portion of the endangered reefs remains to be seen. Corals are vital parts of the ocean ecosystem, which means humans rely on them too: 17 percent of the protein in humans’ diets comes from fish, according to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization. So any effort to save the reefs before it’s too late is worthy of support.

(Read more: "Coral Reefs Are in Trouble. Meet the People Trying to Rebuild Them.")

I hope this information of the "coral reef in crisis" help you to understand what is happening the the coral reef.As we speak,people are destroying the coral reef.

~Allyson Muniz

HI, my name is Leslie Orea. I am doing the coral reef. This is are my vocabulary


ecosystem:is a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms.

population:all the inhabitants of a particular town,area,or country

community:a group of people living in a local area

niche:place or position

biome:a large naturally occuring community of flora fauna occupying a major habitat,forrest,or tundra

Leslie's five facts:

1.Reefs in Florida keys hold at least 45 different species of stony coral , 37 species of octocoral ,5species of sea turtles and etc.

2.Coral reefs are not plants they are animals.

3.Their are 3 types of coral reef. Fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and coral atolls.

4.Fringing reefs can be found along the coastline.

5.Corals grow in different shapes depending on their species.

Leslie's pictures

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Leslies food web

coral reefs | Publish with Glogster!
coral reefs | Publish with Glogster!

Hello my name is Lizzette Badillo. I am doing the Coral Reef with my partners Allyson Muniz and Leslie Orea.

This is my part of the facts.

Lizzette's five facts:

1.) Coral Reefs are found all around the world in tropical and subtropical oceans.

2.) Coral Reef biomes are naturally colorful because of the algae.
3.) Coral Reefs are some of the most diverse ecosystem in the world.

4.) Coral reefs are made of polyps which are tiny organisms that look like rocks. As they develop and grow, so does the reef.

5.) Coral reef are the oldest type of ecosystem in the world.The reef provides food and shelters for thousands of sea creature that need one another to survive.

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external image o-CORAL-REEF-facebook.jpg

The vocabulary:

1.ecosystem:A community of animals and plants.

2.population:The total number of people who live in a place.

3.community:A group of things who live in the same area or who have something in common with each other.

4.niche:a place or position

5.biome:a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, e.g., forest or tundra

6.habitat:the natural home or environment of an animal,plant,or other organism.

Hello my name is Marlyn and my partners name is Arianny. Today i will putting five facts about coral reef ecosystem.

1. Coral reef less than 0.2% of our oceans but they contain 25 of the words marine fish species!

2. Coral reef are second only to rain forest in biodiversity of species.

3. Coral reef are scattered though the tropical and sub tropical Wester Atlantic and in the pacific oceans.

4. Western Atlantic coral reef's include these areas.

5. Coral's grow on rocky out crops in some areas of the California.

This is the coral reef food web i hope you enjoy.

marlyn picture.jpg

This is the coral reef food chain i hope you enjoy.

marlyn picture mr.png

Hello my name is Idelsa Guzman and my partners name is Jennifer Ajtunoday we will be learning about coral reefs!

1.Coral reefs is a shelter that provides thousands of animals.

2.Coral reefs is build by a tiny animal's.

3.The shells build up by creating coral reef's.

4.The Great barrier reef is at least 20,000 year's old.

5.Coral Reefs are some of the most diverse ecosystem in the world.


what is an ecosystem?

an ecosystem is a biological community of interacting organisms and their

physical enviroment.













Hello my name is Daniel Juarez from class 5-999. Today I will be writing about coral reef.

1. Coral reef are generally fond in clear tropical oceans.Coral reef form in water from the surface to about

150 feet deep because they need sunlight to survive. Coral reef need water that is between 68-82 which is

often located long the eastern shores of the land. Reef usually develop in areas that a lot of wave action because the waves bring in food.Nutrient and oxygen to the reef.The sun is the source energy for the coral reef ecosystem

1.) Ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

2.) Population: all the inhabitants of a particular town ,area ,or country.

3.) Community: a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.

4.) Niche: place or position.

5.) Biome: a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat ,forest ,or tundra.

6.)Habitat:The natural home or environment of an animal,plant,or other organisms.

These are some of my images of coral reef.

Image result for coral reefs with rare fish
Image result for coral reefs with rare fish

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This is the coral reef ecosystem food chain

Image result for food chain coral reefs
Image result for food chain coral reefs

Image result for food chain coral reefs
Image result for food chain coral reefs

This is the coral reef ecosystem food pyramid


This is the coral reef ecosystem food web

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  • Coral reef are made of millions of tiny fragile animals call hard coral polyps living and dead,a group of coral a colony.

  • The island of barbad was once a coral reef.

  • It is illegal to damage or sell coral.

  • Coral are tiny animals (not plants) called reef.
  • Coral are tiny polyps be long to the same group as the jelly fish family

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× so i mecca gordon pic this project for me it makes me feel like if it was real


JPG have you ever think how coral reefs are made this pic is showing you how its made.JPG×external image ZBtTxozn1rKsz5N-wiVa9lVexT1ex_9gBAExixgGLVaA48-bfaD0wZWRlAE_C3aaCYzobcY=s40external image PGsoSj4Fm95q21A4iVx7lsUXPBHdOkaiCINrBeui4u2YjmJU-_IcIiXtP-v0QcEAu1E=s45×