Hello my name is Jade Zayas, I am from class 5-5B. These are my five facts.

1.it is one of the most largest living structure on the planet.
2.coral reefs are find in tropical and stubtropica oceans around the world.
3.some of coral reefs can live for over 4,000 year.
4.mostly the coral reefs get nutriton from symbiotic called zootanthellae.
5.coral reefs are actually made from the hard skeleton of small animals called coral polyps.

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picture 1:coral reef
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picture 2: coral reef food web
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picture 3:coral reef food chain
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picture 4:coral reef food pyramid



Hello my name is Amaya Jai Vargas and i'm from class 5-2 and here are my five facts about the Coral Reef.
  1. Coral reefs are one of the worlds most colorful divers ecosystem.
  2. coral reefcover 1 percent of the ocean floor.
  3. Coral reefs have a huge effect on the rest of the world
  4. Healthy coral reefs means healthy oceans which means a [[#|healthy]] planet.
5.Coral is not plants they are actually animals they are related to jelly fish and enemomen.
https://ny.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/nature-works-everywhere-the-amazing-oyster-reef-cl/nature-works-everywhere-the-amazing-oyster-reef-clip/#.WnybzZNg45A
Definition;
1.Ecosystem - A biological community of interaction organisms and there enviorment.
2.Community - a group of people living in the same place or having particular characteristics in common.
3.Population - All in habitats of a particular town,area and or country.
4.Niche - A shallow receas,especially one in a wall to display a statue or ornam
5.Biome. - A large naturally ocurring community of Flora and Fuana ocuppying a major habitat.
6.Habitat - The natural home or enviorment of an animal plant or organism.
7.Food web - A system of interlocking and intendepent food chains.
8.Food chain - The hieracal serie of organisms each depend on the next as a source of food.
9.Food pyramid - A nutrition diagram in the shape of a [[#|pyramid]].
10.Energy pyramid - an energy pyramid is a graphical model.
y.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/nature-works-everywhere-coral-reefs-clip/nature-works-everywhere-coral-reefs-feeding-and-protecting-us-clip/#.WnydG5Ng45A
https://ny.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/nature-works-everywhere-coral-reefs-clip/nature-works-everywhere-coral-reefs-feeding-and-protecting-us-clip/#.WnyZ4JNg45

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figure 1 food chain

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most colorful divers ecosystem

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figure 3 coral food web




figure 3 coral food web


Did you know that coral reef covers 1 percent of the ocean? hi,my name is Amaya Jai Vargas and i will be discussing facts that i learned about Coral reef.First,the most fasinating fact that blew me away was that coral reefs have a huge effect on the health of the rest of the world.Next,healthy coralreefscoral reefs are one of the worlds most colorful divers ecosystem.Then,healthy coral reefs mean healthy ocean which means a healthy coral reef.Last,coral are not plants there actually animals and are amazing enough relatives of jelly fish and enommones.This shows what i learned about my ecosystem wich was coral reef.heres something to think about why are coral shaped the way they are?




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Hello my name is Antony Leon from class 5-3 and here is my five facts.


1.Coral reef are among the most important animals in the ocean.
2.The living part of a coral is made up of tiny creatures called polyps.
3.The Great Barrier covers 2,600 miles of the ocean.
4.Reefs are very important to the fishing industry.
5.Reefs are where many fish or sea creatures want to live.

Hello my name is Anthony Leon and these are my 6 definition that you need to know.

Ecosystem; It is a living things such as plants and animals.
Population;Is a group that live in a area.
Community;A community is an assemblage.
Habitat;A habitat is an ecological
Niche;All of the interactions of a species
Biome;Biome are very large ecological.

Hello my name is Anthony Leon and this is my short summary for the Coral Reef Ecosystem.


There are three types of Coral Reef.For example,one Coral Reef is called The Fringing Reef.
The other Coral Reef is called the Barrier Reef.The Barrier Reef grows parallel to the shore but the Barrier
Reef has a wide body of water.

At first glace,you may think that Coral Reef are made of rocks or something else but there not. The Coral Reef are actually living organisms.
The living organisms around the Reef is tiny little animals called polyps.Polyps live outside of the Reef.
Then the polyps became hard.

The polyps eat small animals.Those animals are called plankton.This is why the Coral Reef and the plankton is close to the sun.
.The plankton get there from the sun

10 ways kids can safe the coral reef.
The plankton used photosynthesis from the sun.
1.The less water we use,the less runoff and wastewater will pollute our oceans.
2.Fossil fuel emissions from our cars and industry raise lead to oceans warming which causes mass-bleaching of coral and can lead to widespread
destruction of reefs.
3.Although you might not live around the coral reef but it does not hurt to help.
4.Don't leave unwanted garbage in the ocean with the coral reef because it will cause danger for the coral reef
5.Try to help the coral reef by taking the garbage out of the ocean.
6.Also we have to protect our plants.
7.Do not touch the coral reef with your bout because it will damage the coral reef.
8.Ask for help from people so they can teach you.

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Hello my name is rosemary guaba and im from class 5-2 here are my 5 facts about the coral reef

1.coral reefs are not plants they are actual animals and related to jelly fish and anemones.
2.even coral reefs are animals they still use photosythesis to survive.
3.coral reefs is a colorful and a diversed ecosytem and that means healthy oceans healthy planet.
4.coral reefs are so valuable that they are harmed by human activity.
5.reefs are made out of corals and one of the biodiverse marine areas on this planet with hundreds of species.





Image result for pictures of coral reefs
Image result for pictures of coral reefs



image 1 coral reefs





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the food chain


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the energy pyramid


Definitions

ecosystem-a community of interaction organisms.


community-a group of people living in the same place.


population- a number of people in a geographic area.


niche-space that all your own from a literal corner.


biome-a complex biotic community characterized by distinctive plant and animal species and maintained under the climatic conditions of the region especially such a community that has developed to climax.


habitat-the natural home or environment of a animal plant or other organism.


food web-a system of interlocking and independent food chains.


food chain-a hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next source of food.


food pyramid-a nutritional diagram in a shape of a pyramid especially [in the us] the food guide pyramid.


energy pyramid-a geographical model of energy flow in a community.





  • a short summary.what I have learned about coral reef is that coral reefs are not plants they are animals and they use photosynthesis even though they are not plants also, coral reefs is a colorful and diversed ecosystem that means healthy oceans healthy planets in addition,coral reef are harmed by human activity because they are so valuable last, reefs are made out of corals and one of the biodiverse marine areas on this planet with hundreds of species.






























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Hello my name is Leidy Vasquez I am from class 5-2 here are my 5 facts of coral reef

1.A coral reef is found in the coral sea off the coast of Queensland Austirula
2.Coral reefs are not plants
3.Coral reefs are important to the [[#|development]] of new [[#|medicines]]
4.The first coral reefs formed about 500 million years ago
5.They are found in shallows areas less than 150 feet deep

Image 1

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Definition

1.Ecosystem is a group of interconnected elements
2.Community is a group of associated nations
3.Population is the total number of persons inhabiting a country
4.Niche is a place or position
5.Biome is a community that has develoment to climax
6.Habitiat is natural environment

Summary


Did you know that coral reefs is a animal?Today I will give you facts about coral reefs.First the worlds first coral reefs formed about 500 million years ago.Last,another fact is that warmer tempertures put stress on coral reefs.


Hello my name is Edwin Adorno and I am from class 5-3

1.Coral reefs are found in clear, tropical oceans.

2.Form in waters from the surface to about 150 feet deep because they need sunlight to survive.

3.the largest reef in the world is the great barrier reef in australia.

4coral reefs need water that is between 68-82 f.they usually develop in areas that have a lot of wave action because the waves bring in food,nutiriets and oxygen to the reef.

5.the corals themselves are the most abundant animal on the reef.they are tiny organisms called polyps.

This a picture of a Coral Reef

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Definitions


1.what is an ecosystem?

an ecosystem is a place where all living things and nonliving things interact together.

2.what is a population?

population is all the organisms of same group or species living in a particler place

3.what is a community?

a community is a nature group where animals and plants living together.

4. what is a habitat?

a habitat is a home for types of animals or plants

5. what is a niche?

a niche is the role that each animal and plant plays in their habitat

6. what is a biome?

A biome is a large region of earth and mage biomes include tundra forests grass land and deserts.

7.what is a predator?

A predator is a animal that eats smaller animals

8.what is a prey?

A prey is a animal that is a predator food.

9. what is a producer?

A producer is a plant that can make its own food.

10. what is a consumer?

A consumer is a animal that eats other living things.

11. what is an environment?

An environment is a place where all living and non living things interact with each other.



Summary

In science class I have been learning about ecosystems and the ecosystem I picked was the coral reef.

The coral reef is an ecosystem where animals like sea stars, squids and crabs live.

There are different plants in the coral reef like algae, and sea grasses.

I learned that the coral reef is getting destroyed by humans because some people are throwing their trash in the ocean.

The Coral reefs can be found on topical oceans. the biggest coral reef is on Australia.


How can kids save the coral

1.If people use less water we will be wasting less water in the oceans.

2.Trees can help the oceans so help plant a tree.

3.Make sure you don't put any kind of thing that can make the ocean worse

4 People who throw trash in the oceans need to stop don't throw trash in the oceans.

5.If your going fishing make sure your not fishing near coral reefs.

6.Tell other people that coral reefs are being ruind and we need to help.

7.Never take anything alive in the oceans.

8.take care of of ocaens and beaches.

9.If you see trash n the oceans get it a d throw it away.

10.If you know ways to help the coral reef spread the word tell other people.
















hello my name is Gabriel Ramirez.im from class 5-3 here are my five facts.

1. there are many types of fish.
2. a coral reef are found in clear tropical oceans.
3. the great barrier reef is the largest reef in the world.
4. without the reef many animals and plants will die.
5.there are many jellyfish at the coral reef.



1. food web by Gabriel Ramirez


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2. food chain by Gabriel Ramirez

Image result for marine food pyramid
Image result for marine food pyramid


3. food pyramid by Gabriel Ramirez
Image result for marine food pyramid
Image result for marine food pyramid


my name is Gabriel Ramirez.Im from class 5-3.Here are my 6 definition.

1.coral reef-A ridge of rocks in the sea formed by the growth and deposit of coral.
2.barrier reef-a long coral reef near and parallel to the shore.
3.atoll-an island consisting of a circular coral reef surrounding a lagoon.
4.prey-a prey is a animal that is a predator food.
5.predator-a predator that eats smaller animals.
6.consumer-a consumer is a animal that eats other living things.

SUMMARY

In science class i have been learning about the coral reef.In the coral reef it is a

clear tropical ocean.there are many type's of fish in the coral reef.there are many

people how throw stuff into the ocean.we can stop wasting water because that

water come from the ocean and if we waste water then the fishs are going

to have no water.fish are going to be gone if we keep eating fish.



10 things kids can do to save the coral reef.
1.stop putting trash in the ocean.
2.the less water you use the less runoff
of wastewater will pollute our oceans.
3.we can use less water.
4.take care of ocean and beachs.
5.if you go fishing put the the fish back in the ocean.
6.dont put bad stuff in the ocean.
7.you can make a little group to save the coral reef.
8.pick up trash in the ocean.
9.If you know how you know how to save the coral reef spread the word.
10.tell someoe to help you clean up.






hello my name is Amaya Vargas I'm from class

Hello my name is Omar Flores from class 5-777 and these are my 5 facts about the coral reef.

1. Coral reefs form in waters from the surface to about 150 feet (45 meters) deep because they need sunlight to survive.

2. Coral reefs need water that is between 68-82 degrees in shallow waters to survive.

3. The sun is the main resources of energy for coral reefs.

4. Coral reefs are valuable then fishing and tourist industries as well as protecting shorelines from storm damages.

5. The largest reef in the world, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia is longer than 1200 miles it has very much types of fish

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Coral Reef Food Web

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Coral Reef Food Chain


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Coral Reef Food Web


Food chain- a series of types of living things in which each one uses the other next lower member as a source food to survive.


Food web - is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community. Another name for food web is consumer-resource system.


Ecosystem- a community of living organisms in conjunction with the non living components of their environment, interacting as a system these biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrients cycles and energy flows.



Food Pyramid- An ecological hierarchy of food relationships in which a chief predator is at the top, each level preys on the next lower level and usually green plants at the bottom.


Population-The whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region.


Habitat-The place where something is commonly found or lives.


Biome- A major ecological community type such a tropical rain forest ,grassland,or desert.



Community- a unified body of people or animals in a particular area.

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The coral reefs Ecosystem is dying the Habitat is dying its been caused by us people were killing the coral reefs because were throwing garbage just garbage into the ocean if we keep doing this one day all of the fish are going to die because they have no homes the coral reefs were their homes we killed their homes by throwing plastic,glass,paper,oil,anything that is killing fish.the fish Population is going to be instinct.the Biome is going in pain how are the fish suppose to eat there are no more fish to eating how are the bigger fish suppose to eat? we have to figure out why we are killing the fishes and the coral reefs Ecosystem?


Niche- something such as a sheltered or private space.


10 THINGS YOU CAN DO TO HELP THE REEF


1. Support conservation organisations and marine parks, through donations, volunteering, paying visitor fees (even when voluntary),

2. Help educate others about marine life and climate change.

3. Follow our reef etiquette when diving and snorkelling. Choose tour operators who are eco-certified, encourage sustainable diving and snorkelling practice, and support marine conservation initiatives.
















Hello my name is sandy nugra torres from class 5-888

1. Coral reefs are generally found in clear tropical oceans. Coral reefs form in waters from the surface to about 150 feet.

2. The three types of reefs include fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls reefs. the largest reef in the Great barrier Reet in Austr alia is longer than 1200 miles

3.Coral reefs are one of the most biodiverse marine areas on the planet, housing humdreds and even thousands of species.

4. There is a lot of jellyfish and animal.

5. Reef that are noticeable in size like the c-eat barrier reef in Australia are between 5 and 10,000 year old.


Image result for CORAL REEF
Image result for CORAL REEF





figure 1- coral reef pictureazzuerya2.jpg
figure 2- food chain.
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figuer 3- food web







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figure 4- food pyramid





What is an Energy Pyramid?:
1. The energy pyramid is a model for how energy spreads through an ecosystem.

2. Decomposer-meanwhile, like bacteria and fungi break down dead animal and plant matter. This recycles nutrients back into the ecosystem .

3. food webs - made of may interconnected and overlapping chains .It all starts with producers.They crate all all of the usable energy in an ecosystem .

4. Photosynthesis- Tiny plant cells called zooxanthellae live within most types of coral polyps. They provide the coral with foods resulting from photosynthesis. Click the image for a larger view of these cells. Most reef-building corals contain photosynthetic algae, called zooxanthellae, that live in their tissues.


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Hello my name is Daniel Tapia from class 5-777 and here is some fact about Coral Reef
1. Coral are sessile which means they don`t move around.
2. Instead theyre attached to a hard surface like a rork or a shipwreck or even the skeleton of other corals
3. Coral reefs are generally found in clear tropical oceans
4. The Sun is the source of energy for the coral reef ecosystem
5. Animals use coral reefs either as a stapping paint like an oasis as they travel the deep blue sea or they live as residents at the reef


coral reef ecosystem
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Daniel food Web.jpgFood pyramid



Daniel fc.jpg Food chain


1.what is a ecosystem-complex interaction of living things and their enviornment.
2.wha is a community-A group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same reginin and interacting with each other.
3.group of organime of the same species populating given area
4.

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Hello,my name is Allyson Muniz and my partners Lizzette Badillo , and Leslie Orea. And we are form the 5-1 class are doing The Coral Reef.Here are some 5 mind blowing facts you have to read.

~Allyson Muniz


1) These undersea palaces are homes to more species of fish,coral,and other type of marine life than any other ocean habitat.


2) Coral reefs also provide many valuables services to people. For example, food, shorelines protection,and medicine are just the few of these benefits.These are also the best places to visit you want to marine life up close and personal.


3.) Coral reefs are experiencing a rapid decline in ecosystems health in most locations in which the once

thrive.Much of this problem in the direct or indirect results of human activity


4.) Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by coral.


5.) Coral reefs are built by colonies of tiny animals found in the marine waters that contain few nutrients . Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in a group.

Vocabulary

1.) Ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.


2.) Population: all the inhabitants of a particular town ,area ,or country.


3.) Community: a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.


4.) Niche: place or position.


5.) Biome: a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat ,forrest ,or tundra.


6.)Habitat:The natural home or environment of an animal,plant,or other organisms

Coral Reef Pictures


Coral Reef and Tropical Fish (Shutterstock www.shutterstock.com)
Coral Reef and Tropical Fish (Shutterstock www.shutterstock.com)

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Coral reef energy pyramid

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Coral Reef food chain



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Coral Reef food web

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I hope you enjoy these pictures of a energy pyramid,food chain,and food web.I hope this will help you guys in the future.

~*ATTENTION* CORAL REEF IS IN CRISIS!!!~ BY:ALLYSON MUNIZ

The world’s corals and coral reef ecosystems are in crisis. In just a few decades, scientists warn, these “rainforests of the sea” and all their rich biodiversity could disappear completely. While corals face numerous dangers, the overarching threats of GLOBAL WARMING and ocean acidification are the greatest, and they’re accelerating the decline of corals around the world. The year 2009 marked the warmest ocean temperatures ever recorded, putting corals at risk and foreshadowing what we can expect as climate change continues. Urgent action is needed to save the world’s coral reefs from extinction.

This is an example of a unhealthy coral reef.....

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That’s why the Center has expanded our efforts to conserve coral reefs. Our coral work began — and is ongoing — with defending elkhorn and staghorn corals, for which we earned federal protection for in 2006. In 2009 we filed a scientific petition to protect the 83 most vulnerable corals within U.S. waters — the corals that can benefit most from U.S. protection — as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Under pressure from the Center, the National Marine Fisheries Service released a status review of the 82 corals, finding that 56 of them are likely to go extinct before the end of the century primarily because of ocean warming, disease and ocean acidification.

Ten percent of the world's reefs have been completely destroyed. In the Philippines, where coral reef destruction is the worst, over 70% have been destroyed and only 5% can be said to be in good condition. What has happened to destroy so many reefs? Human population has become very large, and earth is warming.

There are two different ways in which humans have contributed to the degradation of the Earth's coral reefs, indirectly and directly. Indirectly, we have destroyed their environment. As you read earlier, coral reefs n live only in very CLEAN WATER. The large population centers near coasts has led to silting of reefs, pollution by nutrients that lead to algal growth that smothers the coral, and overfishing that has led to increase in number of predators that eat corals.

Warming of the ocean causes corals to sicken and die. Even a rise of one degree in the average water temperature can hurt the coral. Due to global warming, 1998 was the hottest year in the last six centuries and 1998 was the worst year for coral.The most obvious sign that coral is sick is CORAL BLEACHING. That is when either the algae inside die, or the algae leave the coral. The algae are what give coral its color, so without the algae, the coral has no color and the white of the limestone shell shines through the transparent coral bodies. People have been noticing coral bleaching since the turn of the century, but only since the 1980s has it gotten really bad.

Despite the importance of coral reefs, these wildlife habitats are imperiled throughout the world. A recent report estimated that 75 percent of remaining coral reefs are currently threatened, and many have already been lost. Even some of the most remote and pristine reefs are losing species.

Other Threats

Coral reefs are also being degraded by many other factors. The list of problems can seem endless: overfishing, fishing using cyanide and dynamite, pollution from sewage and agriculture, massive outbreaks of predatory starfish, invasive species, and sedimentation from poor land use practices. Reefs and their wildlife across the world are also affected by destructive fishing and exploitation to supply the coral reef wildlife trade. Fish, corals, and various invertebrates are all taken from reef habitats to serve as aquarium pets or decorative items. Although this trade can be conducted sustainably, wildlife populations are often overexploited to feed the demand for these animals. Sometimes poisons like cyanide are dumped into the water to stun fish and make them easier to capture. Sadly, fishing with cyanide often kills fish, corals, and other forms of wildlife, while degrading the reef habitat itself.

Unsustainable tourism: Tourism generates vast amounts of income for host countries. Where unregulated however, tourism pressures can cause damage to the very environment upon which the industry depends. Physical damage to the coral reefs can occur through contact from careless swimmers, divers, and poorly placed boat anchors. Hotels and resorts may also discharge untreated sewage and wastewater into the ocean, polluting the water and encouraging the growth of algae, which competes with corals for space on the reef.

Coastal development: The growth of coastal cities and towns generates a range of threats to nearby coral reefs. Where space is limited, airports and other construction projects may be built on land reclaimed from the sea. Sensitive habitats can be destroyed or disturbed by dredging activities to make deep-water channels or marinas, and through the dumping of waste materials. Where land development alters the natural flow of water, greater amounts of fresh water, nutrients and sediment can reach the reefs causing further degradation. Within the last 20 years, once prolific mangrove forests, which absorb massive amounts of nutrients and sediment from runoff caused by farming and construction, have been destroyed. Nutrient-rich water causes fleshy algae and phytoplankton to thrive in coastal areas in suffocating amounts known as algal blooms. Coral reefs are biological assemblages adapted to waters with low nutrient content, and the addition of nutrients favours species that disrupt the balance of the reef communities.

Global Warming

Higher sea temperatures from global warming have already caused major coral bleaching events. Bleaching occurs when corals respond to the stress of warmer temperatures by expelling the colorful algae that live within them. Some coral are able to recover, but too often the coral dies, and the entire ecosystem for which it forms the base, virtually disappears.

Longer-lasting and more extensive bleaching events are already on the rise, with further increases expected in the decades ahead as ocean temperatures continue to rise. Warmer waters are also expected to increase the incidence of other coral diseases such as black band disease, white band disease, white plague, and white pox, all of which can lead to mass mortality of coral, and subsequently the entire ecosystem it supports.

Ocean acidification--which occurs when oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere--is also a threat to coral. As the oceans become more acidic, the corals' ability to form skeletons through calcification is inhibited, causing their growth to slow. A doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide will reduce calcification in some corals by as much as 50 percent.

Sea level rise caused by melting sea ice and thermal expansion of the oceans could also cause problems for some reefs by making them too deep to receive adequate sunlight, another factor important for survival.

POLLUTION

Coral reefs need clean water to thrive. From litter to waste oil, pollution is damaging reefs worldwide. Pollution from human activities inland can damage coral reefs when transported by rivers into coastal waters. Do your bit - do not drop litter or dispose of unwanted items on beaches, in the sea, or near storm drains.

The suite of problems facing coral reef ecosystems from land-based sources of pollution is broad and includes sediment, nutrients, and other pollutants from a variety of land-based activities that are transported in surface waters, runoff, groundwater seepage, and atmospheric deposition into coastal waters. There is compelling evidence that the sources have increased globally as a result of human-induced changes to watersheds. On the US islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, significant changes in the drainage basins due to agriculture, deforestation, feral grazing, fires, road building and other construction, and urbanization have in turn altered the character and volume of land-based pollution released to adjacent coral reef ecosystems. Many of these issues are further exacerbated due to specific characteristics exhibited in tropical island areas, all of which create unique management challenges when addressing issues related to land-based sources of pollution. A few examples include: high levels of rainfall; extreme weather events (hurricanes/ typhoons); highly erodible soils; limestone hydrologic features (Pacific atolls); and in some high islands, (American Samoa, Hawai`i), steep slopes abutting the coastal zone.

Sedimentation, including higher levels of suspended sediment in overlying waters, is commonly acknowledged to be one of the primary causes of coral reef ecosystem degradation. The combination of suspended, re-suspended, and deposited sediment act to limit coral growth, feeding patterns, photosynthesis, recruitment, and survivorship, as shown by numerous studies in a variety of settings. Other impacts of sediment include directly smothering and abrading coral. Although some corals can flourish in turbid water, such reefs are typically less diverse and are more restricted in depth ranges than those in clear water. To underscore this point, the US Commission on Ocean Policy reported that "pollution and run-off from coastal areas also deprive reefs of life-sustaining light and oxygen" and many Local Action Strategy (LAS) groups of the US Coral Reef Task Force have identified land-based pollution to reefs as a major area of concern.

In addition to sediment, land-based sources of pollution to coral reef ecosystems include pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pathogens, and excess nutrients. These pollutants can cause or exacerbate the deleterious effects of watershed transport of pollutant constituents onto coral reefs. Excess nutrients, including dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus from sewage, wastewater, and fertilizers, promote the growth of algae that compete with juvenile and adult corals for space on benthic reef surfaces and can affect success of coral settlement and in extreme cases can result in eutrophic conditions in reef waters. In addition, land-based inputs may both directly contribute land-derived pathogens and/or exacerbate the effect of in situ pathogens on coral reef ecosystems.

Finally, the local impacts of land-based sources of pollution work in synergy with global and regional threats such as climate change, land use practices, and freshwater inputs, magnifying the effect of both types of stressors. In particular, the potential for increased frequency and intensity of storm events associated with climate change could exacerbate run-off of sediment and other pollutants.

CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate change and ocean acidification - which is diminishing corals like those in the Great Barrier Reef - typically get all the attention. But other important factors are at play as well, such as overfishing, pollution and coastal development.

According to the World Resources Institute, some 75 percent of the world's coral reefs are now threatened and more than 20 percent have disappeared since climate and fishing disturbances have accelerated in the past 30 years. At the same time, only 27 percent of the world's coral reefs are contained within marine protected areas. At this rate, this combination of factors could cost the world its coral by the year 2100.

Although there are many problems facing reefs today, rising seawater temperature as a result of climate change is one of the most serious causes of stress to corals throughout the world. When temperatures are too high, the relationship between corals and their symbiotic microalgae breaks down. The algae are what give corals some of their bright colors, so when this happens, corals appear white or "bleached." Just one degree above the typical summer max is enough to bleach many corals. If the temperature is too high for too long, corals and their microalgae are unable to recover. Over the past 30 years, bleaching has become more frequent, more intense, and more widespread. This has led to massive die offs of corals throughout the world. Warmer ocean temperatures cause even more problems when it comes to disease – high temperatures allow corals to become sick more easily, and allow disease-causing organisms to grow faster. There is a huge array of different diseases in corals. Most of them are named after how they change a sick coral’s appearance, like black band, white band, white spot and purple blotch diseases.

While climate change and the resulting ocean acidification and coral bleaching does pose a major threat to the region, the report – Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012 – found that local pressures such as tourism, overfishing and pollution posed the biggest problems.

And these factors have made the loss of the two main grazer species, the parrotfish and sea urchin, the key driver of coral decline in the Caribbean.

It is no secret that in the midst of climate change, coral reefs around the world are suffering. However, a warming world is not the only factor putting these reefs in danger - overfishing also plagues these colorful ecosystems. And now new research offers a glimmer of hope, finding that fish are the answer to their problems.

Population

But restoring key fish populations and improving protection from overfishing and pollution could help the reefs recover and make them more resilient to the impacts of climate change, according to the study from the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and the United Nations Environment Programme.

According to the authors, restoring parrotfish populations and improving other management strategies could help the reefs recover. “The rate at which the Caribbean corals have been declining is truly alarming,” said Carl Gustaf Lundin, director of IUCN’s global marine and polar programme. “But this study brings some very encouraging news: the fate of Caribbean corals is not beyond our control and there are some very concrete steps that we can take to help them recover.”

While reef habitats appear to be robust enough to withstand almost anything, they are extremely fragile. Not only are most corals brittle, but they usually need pristine, clear, warm, relatively nutrient-free waters to survive. Over the past 50 years, humans have put an enormous amount of pressure on coral reef environments by altering their waters and tearing up their foundations. From dynamite fishing to global warming, we are rapidly sending the world’s reefs into oblivion. The latest reports state that as much as 27 percent of monitored reef formations have been lost and as much as 32 percent are at risk of being lost within the next 32 years.

For marine biologists, the destruction of the reefs has proven to be as frustrating as it is heartbreaking. Because reef habitats are so complex, and because worldwide reef monitoring and mapping efforts only began a little over a decade ago, scientists simply do not have enough information to keep tabs on the destruction of the reefs, let alone come up with an effective solution. At the rate the reefs are disappearing, they may be beyond repair by the time a comprehensive plan to save reefs can be put into place.

Scientists at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and at several universities around the world, however, may have at least a partial solution to this problem. They have been examining detailed images of the ocean collected by the Landsat 7 and other high-resolution remote sensing satellites. While these types of satellites were primarily launched to observe land-based change, they have also been found to produce detailed images of shallow waters around the ocean’s margins. Using these images, the scientists have been able to map reefs in a fraction of the time it takes to map them by boat or airplane. With funding, the researchers believe they could have a comprehensive map of the world’s reefs within three years. This map would not only be useful for identifying large-scale threats to the reefs, but would allow the researchers to locate those reefs that are in the most trouble.

According to scientists from the Australian Institute of Marine Science, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), James Cook University, and other organizations, fish are the key ingredients in a new recipe to diagnose and restore degraded coral reef ecosystems. At least, in those regions that are severely overfished.

For moderately or lightly fished reefs, success requires knowing which fish to catch, how many, and which to leave behind, the researchers say.

In the journal Nature, the authors assessed fish biomass and functional groups from more than 800 coral reefs worldwide and used them to estimate recovery periods for both lightly fished and overfished reefs. The scientists speculate that maintaining and restoring fish populations and the functions they provide can increase the resilience of reefs to large-scale threats such as climate change.

"By studying remote and marine protected areas, we were able to estimate how much fish there would be on coral reefs without fishing, as well as how long it should take newly protected areas to recover," study lead author M. Aaron MacNeil, Senior Research Scientist for the Australian Institute of Marine Science, said in a statement. "This is important because we can now gauge the impact reef fisheries have had historically and make informed management decisions that include time frames for recovery."

"The methods used to estimate reef health in this study are simple enough that most fishers and managers can take the weight and pulse of their reef and keep it in the healthy range," noted co-author Tim McClanahan, WCS Senior Conservationist. "Fishers and managers now have the ability to map out a plan for recovery of reef health that will give them the best chance to adapt to climate change."

Coral reef experts agree that fishing is a primary driver in the degradation of reef function. By removing too many herbivorous and predatory fish species, it deprives coral reefs of critical ecosystem functions, and also hinders their ability to fight off other threats.

Deforestation

The world's coral reefs are being damaged by harmful runoff, which new research shows is being caused by the clearing of forests. Preventing soil erosion may help protect the reefs, which shield coastlines from ocean waves, draw tourists with their brilliant colors and provide a habitat for fish.

For centuries, humans around the world have been clearing away forests to make room for livestock, farming, and other uses. Scientists say that when the forest cover is lost, soil washes away into rivers that flow into the oceans and, they believe, onto coral reefs.

That runoff adds nutrients to the ocean water. It's essentially too much of a good thing, and scientists have long suspected it can kill the coral. Runoff also clouds the water, blocking light from reaching the reef.

THE RACE FOR THE CORAL REEF


Battered by rising ocean temperatures and this year’s powerful El Niño, many of the world’s coral reefs are slowly dying. Scientists have found that Australia’s Great Barrier Reef is experiencing the worst coral bleaching event they’ve ever seen (bleaching happens when warm water temperatures cause the corals to expel the symbiotic algae that supply the reef with oxygen and nutrients). As a result, the focus of marine biologists has moved from protecting existing reefs to finding ways to restore and rebuild them.

A paper published in Environmental Science and Technology proposes a novel and low-tech method for helping coral survive: blowing bubbles through seawater. This simple technique, say the authors, could remove carbon dioxide from coastal waters and reduce ocean acidification—not the primary cause of coral death but a factor in weakening them.

Other scientists, such as Ken Nedimyer, founder of the Coral Restoration Foundation, are painstakingly growing coral in nurseries made up of PVC trees and transplanting them to the wild. A joint research project by the Australian Institute of Marine Sciences and the University of Hawaii, supported by Paul Allen’s Ocean Challenge foundation, is looking at whether we can hasten the evolution of more resilient corals. Similarly, Steve Palumbi of Stanford’s Hopkins Marine Station is studying certain types of coral that seem to be more resistant to higher temperatures than others, to see if those qualities can be selectively bred.Many of these efforts are essentially geo engineering, and whether they can be scaled up to preserve a significant portion of the endangered reefs remains to be seen. Corals are vital parts of the ocean ecosystem, which means humans rely on them too: 17 percent of the protein in humans’ diets comes from fish, according to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization. So any effort to save the reefs before it’s too late is worthy of support.

(Read more: "Coral Reefs Are in Trouble. Meet the People Trying to Rebuild Them.")




I hope this information of the "coral reef in crisis" help you to understand what is happening the the coral reef.As we speak,people are destroying the coral reef.

~Allyson Muniz


HI, my name is Leslie Orea. I am doing the coral reef. This is are my vocabulary

vocabulary

ecosystem:is a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms.


population:all the inhabitants of a particular town,area,or country


community:a group of people living in a local area


niche:place or position


biome:a large naturally occuring community of flora fauna occupying a major habitat,forrest,or tundra


Leslie's five facts:


1.Reefs in Florida keys hold at least 45 different species of stony coral , 37 species of octocoral ,5species of sea turtles and etc.


2.Coral reefs are not plants they are animals.


3.Their are 3 types of coral reef. Fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and coral atolls.


4.Fringing reefs can be found along the coastline.


5.Corals grow in different shapes depending on their species.



Leslie's pictures

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Leslies food web


coral reefs | Publish with Glogster!
coral reefs | Publish with Glogster!


Hello my name is Lizzette Badillo. I am doing the Coral Reef with my partners Allyson Muniz and Leslie Orea.

This is my part of the facts.

Lizzette's five facts:

1.) Coral Reefs are found all around the world in tropical and subtropical oceans.

2.) Coral Reef biomes are naturally colorful because of the algae.
3.) Coral Reefs are some of the most diverse ecosystem in the world.

4.) Coral reefs are made of polyps which are tiny organisms that look like rocks. As they develop and grow, so does the reef.

5.) Coral reef are the oldest type of ecosystem in the world.The reef provides food and shelters for thousands of sea creature that need one another to survive.


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external image o-CORAL-REEF-facebook.jpg

The vocabulary:


1.ecosystem:A community of animals and plants.


2.population:The total number of people who live in a place.


3.community:A group of things who live in the same area or who have something in common with each other.


4.niche:a place or position


5.biome:a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, e.g., forest or tundra


6.habitat:the natural home or environment of an animal,plant,or other organism.


Hello my name is Marlyn and my partners name is Arianny. Today i will putting five facts about coral reef ecosystem.

1. Coral reef less than 0.2% of our oceans but they contain 25 of the words marine fish species!

2. Coral reef are second only to rain forest in biodiversity of species.

3. Coral reef are scattered though the tropical and sub tropical Wester Atlantic and in the pacific oceans.

4. Western Atlantic coral reef's include these areas.

5. Coral's grow on rocky out crops in some areas of the California.



This is the coral reef food web i hope you enjoy.



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This is the coral reef food chain i hope you enjoy.




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Hello my name is Idelsa Guzman and my partners name is Jennifer Ajtunoday we will be learning about coral reefs!

1.Coral reefs is a shelter that provides thousands of animals.

2.Coral reefs is build by a tiny animal's.

3.The shells build up by creating coral reef's.

4.The Great barrier reef is at least 20,000 year's old.

5.Coral Reefs are some of the most diverse ecosystem in the world.

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what is an ecosystem?

an ecosystem is a biological community of interacting organisms and their

physical enviroment.

ATTENTION!!!ATTENTION!!ATTENTION!!



CORRAL ARE REEFS ARE BEING DESTROYED!!PEOPLE KEEP THROWING TRASH

IN THE OCEAN .AND THE TRASH AND CANS ARE GETTING STUCK IN ROOTS.

PLEASE WE BEG YOU GUYS TO STOP LITTERING IN THE OCEANS AND OTHER PLACES THAT COULD HARM ANIMALS.

PLEASE GUYS DTOP LITTERING!!!

YOU WOULD NOT LIKE IF THEY LITTER YOUR HOUSE

WHATS THE MAIN REASON OF THROWING CANS IN THE OCEAN

THEY HAVE NOT DONE ANYTHING TO YOUR GUYS

SINCERLY:

IDELSA GUZMAN

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Hello my name is Daniel Juarez from class 5-999. Today I will be writing about coral reef.


1. Coral reef are generally fond in clear tropical oceans.Coral reef form in water from the surface to about

150 feet deep because they need sunlight to survive. Coral reef need water that is between 68-82 which is

often located long the eastern shores of the land. Reef usually develop in areas that a lot of wave action because the waves bring in food.Nutrient and oxygen to the reef.The sun is the source energy for the coral reef ecosystem


1.) Ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.


2.) Population: all the inhabitants of a particular town ,area ,or country.


3.) Community: a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.


4.) Niche: place or position.


5.) Biome: a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat ,forest ,or tundra.


6.)Habitat:The natural home or environment of an animal,plant,or other organisms.

These are some of my images of coral reef.







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Image result for coral reefs with rare fish





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This is the coral reef ecosystem food chain



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Image result for food chain coral reefs


Image result for food chain coral reefs
Image result for food chain coral reefs


This is the coral reef ecosystem food pyramid




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This is the coral reef ecosystem food web




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  • THE CORAL REEF FUN FACTS BY MECCA GORDON

  • Coral reef are made of millions of tiny fragile animals call hard coral polyps living and dead,a group of coral a colony.

  • The island of barbad was once a coral reef.

  • It is illegal to damage or sell coral.

  • Coral are tiny animals (not plants) called reef.
  • Coral are tiny polyps be long to the same group as the jelly fish family


  • THIS IS THE PIC OF CORAL
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× so i mecca gordon pic this project for me it makes me feel like if it was real

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JPG have you ever think how coral reefs are made this pic is showing you how its made.JPG×external image ZBtTxozn1rKsz5N-wiVa9lVexT1ex_9gBAExixgGLVaA48-bfaD0wZWRlAE_C3aaCYzobcY=s40external image PGsoSj4Fm95q21A4iVx7lsUXPBHdOkaiCINrBeui4u2YjmJU-_IcIiXtP-v0QcEAu1E=s45×

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